Post-Colonial Africa Main Idea: Newly independent African nations struggled with poverty, conflict, and ineffective governments. In recent years some countries sought better government by holding democratic elections.
Background • Historical Issues in Africa? • Kingdoms • Slave Trade • European Imperialism • Berlin Conference • Scramble for Africa • Pan-African movement • Ignored • Kwame Nkrumah
Why did Europeans give up their colonies after WWII? • Too Expensive • Nationalist Movements emerge
What were challenges to unity in newly formed independent African states? • How “Nations” had been formed • Ethnic Rivalries • Civil Wars • Different Languages • Different Religions • Different Traditions • Most peoples first loyalty is to tribe
Many heroes of independence movements create one party dictatorships Patronage Claim multi-party government hurts unity Eventually become repressive Mobutu Sese Seko If civil unrest comes, military leaders seize power in a coup d'état and create new dictatorship How and why did dictators gain power in many newly formed independent African states?
How and why did some African states move towards democracy in the 1990s? • Lack of Cold War funding began to weaken some of the dictators’ gov’ts • Saw as opportunity to create democratic gov’ts • Western governments and World Bank refuse to loan money if no democracy • 2005-More than 30 African countries abandoned one-party systems for elections
Struggling Economies Limited exports Corrupt leaders/huge debts Disease Malaria (most common cause of death) AIDS Desertification Other Issues: