Lecture 8: Cyberspace for Design Dr. Xiangyu WANG
Cyberspace • A computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange • - From WordNet • The space in which computer transactions occur, particularly transactions between different computers. • We say that images and text on the Internet exist in cyberspace. The term is also often used in conjunction with virtual reality, designating the imaginary place where virtual objects exist. • For example, if a computer produces a picture of a building that allows the architect to “walk” through and see what a design would look like, the building is said to exist in cyberspace. • - From American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Related Work • In design, many systems have been built to support 3D representation, such as • on-line critiques (Wojtowicz, 1995), • synchronous collaboration through drawing (Qian, 1999), • using gestures to create virtual worlds (Donath 1996).
Related Work • “Web PHIDIAS” by McCall et al (1998) • Craig and Zimring at Georgia Tech developed a system that allows people to drop arrows and other objects in a VRML scene (Craig, 1999) • Campbell (1998) tried communicating construction documents with a contractor through 3D VRML models to fabricate a flight of stairs.
Related Work • The Cyberspace Design Studio draws on what we know about built environments to explore the design of virtual places for public and community activities. For example, navigation and wayfinding are important concerns in virtual places. • Designers of cyberspace environments can take advantage of what is known about wayfinding in buildings and cognitive maps (Strong and Woodbury 1998). The Cyberspace Design Studio integrates virtual and real building design. Here, a Virtual Museum built in VRML (illustration, courtesy Thomas Jung)
Related Work • Commercial applications also allow users to annotate while viewing 3D objects. For example, • eZ (http://www.ezmeeting.com/) viewer provides viewing of operations and mark-up on documents stored at the server site from all client sites. • Synchronous communication • does not capture or record the process or results of the collaboration for future reference. • The SolidView program from Solid Concepts (http://www.solidview.com/) provides utilities to make presentations such as a slide show or cross section measurements of a prepared three-dimensional model.
Case Study • Immersive Redliner: Collaborative Design in Cyberspace • Thomas Jung, Design Machine Group, University of Washington, USA • Ellen Yi-Luen Do, Design Machine Group, University of Washington, USA • Proceedings of ACADIA 2000
Motivation • Collaboration among architects, their colleagues, and clients by commenting on design documents is a well-accepted practice. • Traditionally, designers record and exchange review comments and critiques through annotation of design drawings, or ‘redlining’. • Currently, architecture firms use electronic media such as email and file transfer to send drawing files or specification spreadsheets to their collaborators at different locations. • Sending files across the Internet creates new management problems. • time differences between remote locations • version control mechanisms for shared documents. • It is therefore desirable to have a virtual space for all concerned parties to visit, review and make changes to the design at their convenience.
Immersive Redliner • The idea is to put a three-dimensional design representation on-line for asynchronous virtual visits, commentary, or redlining. • Immersive Redliner supports annotation of three-dimensional artifacts in collaborative design. • Two case studies • The current system employs a VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) browser and Java applets to mediate the actions of multiple viewers who visit a virtual model and leave behind annotation markers with comments on the design.
Video • URL: http://depts.washington.edu/redline1/komo4-02.mov
The system facilitate communication among all parties involved in the design development process: architects, engineers, contractors, and clients can review and comment about design issues directly on the design artifacts.
First Study: Pavilion House • Layout
First Study: Pavilion House • Viewpoint
Second Study: Housing Rehabilitation • A test in a real design situation involving renovation of an apartment building in Strasbourg, France.
Second Study: Housing Rehabilitation • Two architects, the owner of the building, and a contractor, a technical person from the CRAI (Center for Research in Architecture and Engineering). • To test how the Redliner could work to facilitate communication among member of this team and the client.
Second Study: Housing Rehabilitation • The information including presentation of the design proposals as text files, plans, sections and pictures of the spaces at the existing stage as pdf or jpg files were sent to each participants. • The project took place over a period of three months with three design phases.
Second Study: Housing Rehabilitation • The first phase is a “coded” representation of the upper two floors - a hybrid representation combining a traditional 2-D floor plan with some 3-D model elements
Second Study: Housing Rehabilitation • During the second design phase the architects incorporated comments and suggestions made during the initial 3-D/VRML representation of the site and posted to Redliner a remodeling design proposal
Second Study: Housing Rehabilitation • The third phase involved a proposal of several design alternatives in response to the user comments.
Second Study: Housing Rehabilitation • The same space with and without beam
User Study • The architects found that interacting with three-dimensional design models is a good way to explore design alternatives. • The contractor appreciated seeing comments and discussions positioned at the right locations and this reduced confusion and miscommunication. • Users commented that they were able to connect the projected reality of the design space to the on-screen VRML model. • Everyone could view the latest design proposition and react, annotate, question or respond at any time from anywhere. • Retaining a trail of what happened and how certain decisions were taken along the design process is also useful for the architects as well as for the clients.
Video • SquareClock: a new generation of 3D social media application to connect individuals with housing industry. Using SquareClock, anyone will design their house project in 3D inside their web browser and then furnish, decorate, arrange, transform it virtually with real products and services from professionals. • URL: • http://www.metacafe.com/watch/920218/innovative_web_based_3d_modeling_for_house_design_and_decoration/ • http://video.google.com.au/videosearch?q=squareclock&hl=en&sitesearch=