The Korean Approach to Validation for Lifelong Learning Kim Shinil Baekseok University, Korea
Higher Education in Korea • Population 48 million (North Korea, 25mil.) • Institutions 432 (Univ. 189, more than 2/3 is private). • Students 3,728,802 (Univ. 2,108,958), mostly young and full time. • Students bear major part of the expenses. • Enrolment rate 76%
Higher Education in learning society
European vs. Korean • Utilizing VPL within Higher Education Context
Early VPL Policy in Korea • Bachelor’s Degree Examination for Self-Education (BDES) • Since 1990 • BA degree through examination only • Academic Credit Bank System (ACBS) • Since 1998 • Obtaining Associate’s or BA degree through validation of non-formal learning
Early VPL Policy in Korea • BDES and ACBS • awarding higher education degrees to non-students who are recognized as reaching the same level of learning with university students. • Degree awarding approach to VPL/RPL • Reflecting cultural and historical background of Korea
Old Korean Education System • Lasted more than 10centuries • Public school system from the 7th century • basic schools • middle schools • higher education(the Royal College)
National Examination • Since the year of 958. • Instrument of qualification for social status and selecting government officials. • 3 courses of Examination • Civil exam, Military exam, and Specialist exam. • Civil exam • The most prestigious one • 3 stages: lower, upper, and the highest. • Specialist exam • medicine, foreign languages, accounting, astronomy.
National Examination • Who applied : From the teens to the fifties. • Stages of examination in part connected with public school levels. • However, more than half of all applicants during the Choseon dynasty (1392-1910) took the highest examination without attending the royal college. • Most of them from high class family • Preparing the examination with personal tutor or at the private tutoring classes.
National Examination • Two characteristics • National examination in old Korea was open not only to the graduates of school but also to people without or unfinished schooling. • Examination functioned as a validation of learning experiences outside of school and university system.
Modernization • Old Education System • Discontinued at the end of 19th century • Modern Education System • schooling-oriented • developed in Europe • However, the alternative track through examinations has not disappeared until today.
BDES • Bachelor’s Degree Examination for Self-Education • Since 1990 as an alternative track • Four stages of qualifying examination • general education • major basic • major advanced • comprehensive.
BDES • Exemption of examination • For who learners who already achieved a certain number of credits from university or had certificates of concerned area. • About 14,000 persons have been awarded bachelor degree since 1990.
ACBS • Proposed as one of the President Commission of Education Reform measures in 1996 • Recognition of learning at non-formal education programs for the higher education degree • In 2013, about 50,000 learners are granted Associate’s or BA degree for 109 study areas • About 70% of the registered learners are 30 years or older.
ACBS • Validation of learning during the military service • Mandatory military service of young men for about two years • An agreement between Ministers of the Education and the Defense in 2007. • Recognition of learning from trainings and educations during the military service as credits • Utilizing credits toward the higher education degree through the academic credit bank system, or for vocational qualifications and licenses. • About 310,000 soldiers obtained credits during the years of 2007~2012.
ACBS • Validation of learning from the National Intangible Cultural Assets • Vanishing traditional arts and crafts in Korea • hardly respected by universities • Successors of the cultural assets • Validation toward the degree activated learning of the vanishing skills • Validation is an powerful instrument for reviving learning of a neglected culture. • ACBS explores new study areas that are not properly recognized
New Developments • Validation of Workplace learning are expanded through revision of laws • Annually 80 marine engineers obtained certificate by the recognition of field experiences after revision of the act of marine industry manpower in 2008. • The revised Qualification Act expanded coverage of validation of vocational skill learning at work.
New Developments • Lifelong Learning-oriented University Project • Provide more programs for adult learners • Transform themselves into the lifelong learner- friendly institutes • admission criteria and process • reorganization of department/faculty • curriculum and instructional methods • introducing new concept of teaching staff • validation of prior learning
New Developments • Lifelong Learning Account System (LLAS) • Overarching managementsystem of lifelong learning society • Accumulation, assessment, validation and recognition of each individual’s all kinds of learning • Recommended by the President Commission of Education Reform in 1995 • Since 2010, about 5,000 learners are registered
Challenges and Tasks • Professionals for non-formal and informal learning – ‘Lifelong Education Specialist’ • RVA as essential bridge connecting learning and working • Diversification oflearning for higher education • From education to learning