The Respiratory System By SimranSidhu and AryaSureshbabu
Function What exactly does the system do?
General Functions • Provide body with enough oxygen to carry out functions • Rid body of excess carbon dioxide Oxygen Carbon Dioxide
The Process How does the system work?
Overview • Diagram shows entire system • Air goes from mouth to lungs, then back out
Diaphragm • Underneath the lungs • Muscle that controls entire system • Contracts to allow lungs to expand • Expands so lungs can contract
Nose, Mouth, and Trachea • Air enters through nose or mouth • Warm, moisturize and filter the air • Cilia picks up particles • Nasal passageway longer • Both from mouth and nose go to trachea (windpipe) • Eventually leads to lungs
Lungs • Travels through lungs in bronchi • Bronchi branch out into smaller passageways (bronchioles) • Alveoli are found at the end of bronchioles • Allow oxygen to pass into bloodstream and carbon dioxide out to lungs
Strengths Reasons why the respiratory system is reliable
Simplicity • Relatively few organs • Organs don’t have too many complex parts • Example: Brain has many different lobes, functions, and sections, so damage to one part can affect body as a whole. • Example (cont’d):Lungs, on the other hand, serve only one function, so not as many ways in which things can go wrong
Compact Area • Only in chest cavity • Unlike other systems, does not have extensions to fingers, toes, etc. • Cannot be physically damaged from outside unless injured directly in chest
Weaknesses Problems that may occur
Exposure to Foreign Particles • Receives air directly into system • Particles in the air: pathogens, chemicals, poisonous gasses, carcinogens in tobacco smoke • Cilia cannot capture all the particles, so some can reach lungs and cause serious problems
Lung Cancer and Pneumonia • Carcinogens in tobacco smoke cause cancerous tumors to form on lungs • Cancer can spread to further body parts and could cause death • Pneumonia caused when viruses or bacteria are inhaled • Shortness of breath, coughing up mucus, chest pain, nausea, etc. are symptoms • Best cured by bed rest
Asthma • Chronic disease that constricts airways • Common asthma triggers: polluted air, tobacco smoke, factory fumes, cleaning solvents, pollens, and chemicals • When substance enters body, airways become irritated and constrict/fill with mucus to keep substance out • Also prevents air from getting through • Asthma patients must take emergency relief • Consistently take preventative medicine
What You Can Do • Don’t smoke. Tobacco smoke is one of the leading causes of lung cancer. • Be conscious of the air around you. If you feel that it’s polluted heavily, try to get some fresh air. • If you have asthma, always have an emergency inhalant on hand. • Exercise to improve lung capacity.