Post* WWII and the US • Allied leaders Truman, Churchill and Stalin met in July 1945 at the Potsdam Conference. • Germany was divided into four zones. The French, Americans and British united their zones in the West and the Russians controlled the East. • Tensions grew between Stalin and the other Allies as Communist Russia and Poland now controlled much of Eastern Europe. • The US occupied Japan from 1945-1952. By 1947 Japan had a constitution and a democratic government with universal suffrage.
War Crimes Trials At the Potsdam Conference, the Allied leaders agreed that “stern justice shall be given out to all war criminals….” The German War Crimes trials were known as the Nuremberg Trials. Twelve Nazi leaders were sentenced to death, thousands more were jailed, fined or barred from holding public office Many Nazis fled to Latin America to avoid prosecution. Seven Japanese leaders were sentenced to death in War Crimes Trials held in Tokyo. The Search Continues
The United Nations (the UN) • The United States, Britain, Russia and China met in 1944 and created an international organization called the United Nations. • The UN included a general assembly for all member nations and a 15 member Security Council with five permanent nations, including the United States, and ten rotating positions. • One of the first U.S. delegates to the UN was former first lady, Eleanor Roosevelt.
Roots of the Cold War • After WWII the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the worlds two major powers • The US was committed to the principles of democracy, capitalism and freedom while the Soviet Union included a state-run economy, one-party rule and suppression of rights • The US and Russia began a competition for global power known as the Cold War. The ‘war’ was fought mostly on political and economic fronts, and not on a battlefield.
The Cold War Begins • Soviet expansion after WWII fueled American mistrust. • Winston Churchill described the Soviet influence as an “Iron Curtain” that had divided East and West Europe(satellite nations- buffer zone- feared communism) • The US and Russia began a dispute over atomic weapons. The US tried to regulate their production but the Soviet Union rejected inspections and created their own A-bombs (atomic bombs) • Berlin airlift,1948–49, supply of necessities to West Berlin by US air transports primarily. It was initiated in response to a land and water blockade of the city that had been instituted by the Soviet Union in the hope that the Allies would be forced to abandon West Berlin. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wf6omuz1MrM&feature=BFa&list=PL8F75BD900607FF14&lf=plpp_video
GI Help for Veterans • The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 popularly known as GI Bill of Rights afforded them to continue their education or government loans to buy homes and farms (16$ Billion) • Sign of confidence in the postwar era 50 million babies were born 1945-1960= Baby Boomers • William J Levitt created Levittown, a project of 17,000 mass produced homes in Long Island, NY. A single generation became suburbanities. • Uprooted by the war million of people moved to warmer climate known as the Sunbelt states from FL-CA. (low taxes and eco opp in defense building) • Reacting against the fact that FDR served 4 terms 1951 Rep passed 22nd Amendment- 2 terms/10 yrs
The Truman Doctrine • In 1946 a civil war broke out in Greece and Communist-led rebels threatened to overthrow the Democratic government. • In a speech to Congress that would later become known as the Truman Doctrine, the President asserted that the US must protect free peoples from outside pressures. • Congress responded to Truman by approving $400 million to aid Greece and Turkey.
The Marshall Plan • After WWII, European economies were in shambles and horrible blizzards worsened an already difficult situation. • In April of 1948 Secretary of State George C. Marshall presented his European Recovery Program to Congress. • By helping Europe, economies were quickly restored and the U.S. gained strong trading partners in the region. • Initially Congress hesitated to accept the Marshall Plan, but when the Soviet Union overthrew Czechoslovakia, Congress agreed.
NATO and the Warsaw Pact • In 1949 nine Western European nations joined the US, Canada and Iceland to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). • NATO members pledged to defend the other nations in case of an outside attack. • In response to NATO the Soviet Union joined other Communist Nations in a similar agreement known as the Warsaw Pact. • After NATO the US began to station troops in Europe and provided massive aid to its allies
China Falls to Communists • Since the 1920’s, China had two main political parties the Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong and the Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek. • During WWII the two sides put away their differences to focus on defeating Japan. • After the War, fighting resumed and the US began to send money to the Nationalist Party. Opposition to Chiang mounted and his army retreated to Taiwan. • By 1949, Communist forces led by Mao Zedong controlled most of the country and established the People’s Republic of China. US rejected this new government; recognized the Nationalist Party instead.
The Korean War aka The Forgotten War • After defeating Japan in 1945, the US and Russia split Korea into two zones, North and South. North Led by Kim Il Sung, South led by Syngman Rhee • Russia occupied the North and US forces the South. N=Communist S= Non-Communist • Both the US and Russia trained and supplied the armies of North and South Korea but then pulled troops out of the area. • In June 25, 1950, North Korea attacked South Korea prompting the US to send troops. • American troops and UN forces invaded North Korea, but were pushed back as China decided to send troops to aid North Korea.
MacArthur and Korean War • Pres. Truman ordered MacArthur to intervene in the civil war both in Korea and Taiwan, and command the United Nation forces. • At first the North Korean forces with their Soviet made weapons were overwhelming, • MacArthur launched a counterattack in September of 1950. Coming ashore at Inchon, MacArthur retook Seoul and UN forces attacked at the Yalu • The U.S., announced that negotiations might be possible with both sides separated by the 38th parallel. MacArthur disagreed with negotiated settlement publicly. Consider dropping the a bomb? • Truman fired MacArthur for his insubordination!
Ending the Korean War • As Chinese forces moved into North Korea, UN and American forces retreated and established a line near the 38th parallel. • The war settled into a stalemate. As American casualties rose Truman lost popularity. Republican Dwight Eisenhower won the 1952 election and stepped up bombing in N. Korea • Although a ceasefire/armstice was called in 1953, peace treaties were never signed. There was always mixed US feeling as to our involvement in the conflict, especially since war was never declared making it illegal- negative feelings about why we were fighting.
HUAC/Loyalty Review Board= The Second Red Scare • As Red Scare followed WWI, a second Red Scare followed WWII- Truman saw Communist conspiracies behind civil wars and believed their were communist spies in US State Dept, military, and all of society. • 1947- Truman set up the Loyalty Review Board to investigate the background of 3 million federal employees. • House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)=Investigate gov officials, Boy Scouts, actors, writers, to testify before a committee. Those who wouldn’t were blacklisted. • Rosenberg Trial= FBI/HUAC traced a spy ring to Julius & Ethel Rosenberg in NY. By 1951, found guilty of treason and executed for the crime in 1953.
Rise of McCarthy • Joseph McCarthy, a senatory from Wisconsin used his growing concern over communism in his reelection campaign. • 1950, Speech he charged 205 Communists were still working for the State Department. • McCarthy rode the wave of anticommunist fears to become the most powerful man in America=fear. • Used a steady stream of unsupported accusations to discredit Truman, wealthy, and hurting the Democrats before the election of 1952.
McCarthy Falls • Finally in 1954, Ed Murrow hurled the spear at the terror. The spear was his See It Now television broadcast on Senator Joe McCarthy. • A Senate committee held televised hearings on Communist infiltration in the Army, and McCarthy was seen as a bully, and the “witchhunt” died. • 3 years later, McCarthy died a broke man.
Edward R. Murrow was a hero. When this nation was drowning in cowardice and demagoguery, it was Murrow who hurled the spear at the terror. The spear was his See It Now television broadcast on Senator Joe McCarthy.
Truman’s Legacy & The Fair Deal • Truman launched reform program called Fair Deal (1) to enact health care insurance, (2) federal aid to education, (3) civil rights legislation, funds for public housing, (4) increase min wage- most defeated- Cold War worries • 1952 Soviets test their first bomb in 1949, Truman approves the H Bomb ( hydrogen) speeding up the arms race & defense spending. • The 2nd Red Scare, stalemate in Korea, the loss of China, and scandals surrounding his admin unlikely to run.
Happy Days- “If It Works” • 50s had the popular image when nation prospered and teens enjoyed rock n roll known as the “Beat” Generation- originality and individuality- The nostalgic view of the 50s is correct- but limited. • Rosa Parks, war in Korea, McCarthyism, segregation in the South, nuclear destruction- • In 1952, Jonas Salk developed a vaccine against polio, ending the epidemic by 1957. • However the prosperity of the 1950s led to increased consumption and growth of agriculture, well as business. The average American had twice the income and the highest standard of living in the world!
Eisenhower” I Like Ike” & The Cold War • One of Eisenhower’s advisor Robert Dulles advocated “brinkmanship”, to push Soviet powers to the “brink” of nuclear war may make them back off. • Advisers kept expressing a greater reliance on nuclear weapons and air power giving more “bang for the buck.” • In 1953, the US developed the Hydrogen bomb (H-bomb) which was 1000 times more powerful; Soviets caught up- looked like mutual extinction, increasing the ARMS RACE and more spending on defense, including duck and cover training in school, and radioactive shelters or fallouts. • Launching of Sputnik I on October 4, 1957 & II prompted America to start NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and create more Foreign language, math, and science in high schools and college by the NDEA (National Defense Education Act-1958)
Domestic Policies • Interstate Highway System (1956) authorized construction of 42,000 miles linking nations major cities= jobs, trucking accelerated suburbs & more homogeneous culture (hurt railroad). • Evangelist Billy Grahamattracted large audiences during the 1950s warning of the danger of nuclear war and urged Americans to turn to God. American’s religious devotion contrasted sharply with the official atheism of the Soviet Union. Reflecting our strong religious beliefs, Congress added the phrase “One Nation Under God” to the Pledge of Allegiance and “In God We Trust” to US coins. • When the Governor of Arkansas (OrvalFabus) refused to admit nine black students to the all white Little Rock Central High School, President Eisenhower ordered troops to force their admittance. The students became known as the ‘Little Rock Nine’. • George Wallace was governor of Alabama in 1963 when African-American students sought admission to the University of Alabama. He literally barred the door, denying them admission.
Eisenhower Domino Theory • Coined the most famous Cold War phrases when he suggest the fall of French Indochina to the communist could create a “domino” effect in Southeast Asia. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xamjeyxT1iA • This domino theory dominated US thinking for Vietnam for the next decade. • SEATO- Dulles put together a regional defense called the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization agreeing to defend one another in case of attack (Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam=8 nations)
Eisenhower’s Legacy • During Eisenhower’s terms in office he was faced with the onset of the civil rights movement with several events that paved the way. • In 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her seat on a Montgomery, AL bus to a white passenger. • Civil rights leaders lead by Martin Luther King organized a boycott of city busses and the NAACP appealed Park’s conviction. • After nearly a year of not riding city busses (a non-violent protest) ,the city of Montgomery desegregated (integrated) its public transportation system. Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks continued to work to end racism.