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Settlement. Settlement Timeline. 1. The Hunter-Gatherers of Mount Sandel 2. The New Stone Age Settlers 3. Early Christian Monastic Settlements 4. The Vikings 5. The Normans 6. Later Monastic Settlements – after 1100 AD 7. Plantation Towns – 16 th – 17 th Century

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  1. Settlement

  2. Settlement Timeline 1. The Hunter-Gatherers of Mount Sandel 2. The New Stone Age Settlers 3. Early Christian Monastic Settlements 4. The Vikings 5. The Normans 6. Later Monastic Settlements – after 1100 AD 7. Plantation Towns – 16th – 17th Century 8. Landlord Towns – 17th Century - Long Period of Emigration from Ireland 1840’s onwards 9. Large scale Immigration to Ireland from the 1990’s to today

  3. The First Settlers in Ireland • The first people who settled in Ireland were the Hunter-Gatherers of Mount Sandel. • They arrived in Ireland about 9000 years ago, and settled beside the River Bann. • Where did they come from? • What do you think their life was like? • What was Ireland like at the time? • Why did they settle beside the river?

  4. Why did they settle in Mount Sandel? • They used the water from the River Bann for cooking, and washing. • They used the river as a transport route. There were no roads. • They also caught fish in the river for food. • They got flint for their stone weapons in Co. Antrim. • They hunted wild pigs and deer in the forests. • They gathered nuts and fruits in the forests. Therefore, Mount Sandel was a good place for them to live because it provided them with all of the things they needed in their lives.

  5. New Stone Age Settlers – The Boyne Valley • The New Stone Age (Neolithic) settlers arrived in Ireland around 4000BC. • Their lives differed from the hunter-gatherers in one important way. These people had started to keep animals and plant crops. In other words, they had started farming. • They settled in the Boyne Valley because; • The River Boyne was a transport and communication route. • They got water from the river, as well as fish. • The soils in the Boyne Valley are fertile and so they are good for farming. • They could hunt deer and other animals in the forests if they needed food. With reference to the OS Map, what evidence do we have that New Stone Age settlers lived in the Boyne Valley?

  6. Viking Settlements • The Vikings came to Ireland around 800AD. • They came in boats from Scandinavia. • They settled along the coastline at river estuaries. Can you name any places where they settled? Why did they settle in these places?

  7. Viking Settlements • Many Viking settlements developed along the coast and on river estuaries. • Many of the place names end in –ford which comes from the Scandinavian word fjord.

  8. Monastic Settlements • Monasteries were built by monks after St. Patrick brought Christianity to Ireland. • These monasteries were built in remote places like Glendalough. • Other monks came to Ireland later, such as the Franciscans. They came in the 1100’s and set up many monasteries. These helped the towns to grow. Can you name any towns that grew around monastic sites? What evidence do we have today that monasteries were built in Ireland?

  9. Norman Settlements • The Normans invaded Ireland in the 12th Century. • They built great castles, often along the banks of rivers so they could defend themselves. • They settled mainly in the south and east of Ireland. Can you name any towns that started as Norman settlements?

  10. Norman Settlements

  11. Plantation Towns – The Ulster Plantation • In the 16th and 17th centuries the British people came to Ireland to set up towns. • Parts of Ireland were planted or settled by people loyal to the Queen of England. • These are known as plantation towns. • Examples in Ulster can be seen in Fig. 8.7. • Other Plantation towns are Portarlington, Portlaoise, Youghal, and Mallow.

  12. Landlord Towns • After the plantations, many landlords built towns on the lands they had been given. • They built spacious, well planned towns with fine architectural buildings. • Examples include Abbeyleix, Birr, Kilrush, and Strokestown.

  13. Modern Settlement • If we examine OS Maps of Ireland today we find 3 different types of settlement. • Linear: A line of houses along a road. • Nucleated: A bunch of houses grouped together. • Dispersed: Houses spread apart from each other.

  14. The Primacy of Dublin • Dublin is a primate city. • A primate city is a city that is twice as big as the second biggest city in the same country. • For example, Dublin is twice as big as Cork, so it is a primate city. Can you name any other primate cities in the other countries.

  15. Why did Dublin become a Primate City? • Dublin is where the government of Ireland sits. 2. It is Ireland’s main port. 3. It is Ireland’s main transport focus. (Air, Sea, Rail, Roads). 4. It is Ireland’s most important educational, cultural, and commercial centre. Dublin is therefore a zone of attraction for migrants, and foreign direct investment.

  16. Dublin – A Route Focus in Ireland • All of the transport routes in Ireland focus on Dublin.

  17. The Influence of Resources & Terrain on Settlement • The following factors influence where towns and villages develop. 1. Altitude – Little settlement occurs in upland areas. They are too cold, wet, and windy. It is also too difficult to build in the mountains. 2. Rivers – Rivers attract settlement. In the past they were important for water, transport, and food. Fertile soil is also found alongside many rivers which is good for farming. Many towns also developed at bridge points. 3. Land Quality – Fertile land attracts settlement. This is why more people settled in the south and east of Ireland. The land is less fertile in the west. With reference to the OS Map of Caher, explain in detail 3 reasons why the town of Caher developed at this place.

  18. Coastal Settlements • Ireland has many coastal towns and villages. • They developed around the ports as fishing villages such as Killybegs. • Other towns developed around beaches such as Tramore and Bundoran. With reference to the OS Map explain 2 reasons why Dunmore East developed in this location.

  19. Coastal Settlements

  20. Settlement in the Netherlands - Polders • The Netherlands is a small country with a population of 16 million people. • It has the highest population density in Western Europe. • The people have reclaimed areas of land from the sea. This new land is called a Polder. Polders have given new farmland and space to live. How were the polders created? • A large dam was built across the mouth of a large coastal inlet. • Water was pumped out of the inlet, making it dry land. • Roads were built and farms were laid out on the land. • People moved onto the land.

  21. Settlement Patterns on the Polders • Settlement on the polders is in a planned radial pattern. • A large town was built in the centre of the polder. It provides all the services needed for the population who live there. • Smaller villages were built in a radial pattern around the main town.

  22. The Polders as Overspill Zones • The polders have acted as overspill zones for many people who lived in the large cities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam. • People have moved from these cities and settled on the polders.

  23. The Functions ofNucleated Settlements Nucleated settlements (towns and villages) provide many different functions to the people who live there. Settlement typeFunction Village Small range of services, groceries, petrol, church, school. Market More services, banking, supermarket, clothes shops Defensive Began on easily defended sites. Castle or ruins remain. Resource based Town develops around a coal mine, or other mineral mine. Port Town developed at a port or docks. Residential People live there but travel to nearby city to work each day. Recreational Town developed around beach or other leisure facility. Ecclesiastical A religious function, caters for people’s spiritual needs.

  24. Settlement in a River Basin – The Shannon • Many towns have developed along the course of the River Shannon. • These towns developed for many different reasons. For e.g. • Foynes is a port settlement. • Athlone started as a defensive settlement. • Clonmacnoise started as an Ecclesiastical settlement. • Killaloe has a leisure function for boating activities in Lough Derg.

  25. Different Functions of Limerick City • Limerick began as a defensive settlement. The Vikings settled in Limerick. The Normans settled there later and built King John’s Castle. • Limerick later developed into a market town. It grew as a bridge point of the River Shannon. It became a route focus. Limerick’s port also helped the town to grow as a market town. • Limerick has many functions today. It has an important residential function with many suburbs around the city centre. It also has an important educational function with 3 third level colleges.

  26. Settlement in a River Basin – The Rhine • The River Rhine is one of the busiest and most important rivers in Europe. • It is used to transport huge amounts of goods into Europe. • Many large towns and cities have developed along the course of the Rhine.

  27. Change in Function Over Time - Navan

  28. Change in Function Over Time - Navan

  29. Change in Function Over Time - Navan • Settlements may change their function over time. • Navan first developed as a market settlement. • In the 1970’s Navan also became a resource-based settlement when the largest lead and zinc mine in Europe was opened there. This brought new wealth and jobs to the area. The population increased as a result. • Navan has also developed a residential function. Many people who work in Dublin live in Navan. They commute to Dublin each day to work.

  30. Population Increase in Navan 1971-2006

  31. Large Scale Industrial Development - Clarecastle • Clarecastle in Co. Clare is another example of a town whose function has changed over time. • It began as a bridging point over the River Fergus. The Normans built a castle there in the 13th century so the town had a defensive function. It also had a port function. • In the 1970’s a large chemical factory opened in the town. This factory brought new jobs to the area and money to the local economy. • Clarecastle’s main function today is a manufacturing function.

  32. Large Scale Industrial Development - Clarecastle

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