Site • Size • Function • Urban morphology models of an MEDC city • Urban morphology models of an LEDC city • The characteristics of Urban Zones • Definition of urbanisation and the problems associated with it • Problems in CBD and inner cities of MEDC • Problems in Shanty Towns of LEDC • Reasons for urban sprawl • Advantages/disadvantages of urban sprawl
The site of a settlement is the physical land on which a settlement is built. • There are many factors which influence choice of site, for example; • Water supply- all settlements need water but need to avoid flooding (places which are built near water are called WET POINT SITES and places which are built to avoid water are called DRY POINT SITES) • Aspect and shelter- In the northern hemisphere the south-facing slopes are warmer than the north facing slopes • Defence- settlements were often built high on hill sides or close to rivers in order to defend themselves against attack • Food supply- Early people needed to grow their own food so would need to locate on fertile soil • Communications- All settlements need to be ideally located near to roads, at gaps in a hill or a bridging point • Building materials and fuel supply- Early settlements were often sited near woodlands so that people had access to wood for building materials and a fuel supply
A settlement hierarchy arranges settlements in size or importance. A settlements place in the hierarchy depends on the size of the population, the range and number of services and the sphere of influence or area served by the settlement.
The function of a settlement is its purpose- the main ‘work’ that it does e,g, religious, industrial, educational. Small settlements may have one specific types of employment which dominates, for example, mining towns. However, large cities and towns often have several employment types and are therefore described as multifunctional. Many settlements have changed their function over time. In some cases the original functions, such as defence or farming, have disappeared altogether.
The Burgess model for an MEDC city The Burgess model has five rings of different land uses. The CBD (central business district) is in the middle. The Burgess model was developed in the 1920’s and followed two main ideas. 1 The most expensive land is often in the centre of the city where the CBD is located and the land on the edge of the city is cheaper. 2 Cities grew outwards from the original site so the oldest buildings would be in the middle of the city and the youngest would be on the edge
An urban model for an LEDC city The model below is based on cities in Brazil. The model has one similarity with the Burgess Model as the CBD is still in the centre. However, in the LEDC model the urban zones are less defined, the high class sector is very small and close to the CBD, there are no middle class housing zones (like the suburbs of the MEDC’s), the largest zone is the shanty towns which are usually on the outskirts.Large-scale industry is often fairly recent and is sited along main routeways or around the edges.
CBD- The Central Business District is at the heart of a city where the original settlement was sited. Offices, shops and leisure activities are often found here and there are very few residential areas. INNER CITY- The inner city zone grew during the industrial revolution. It would have consisted of a mix of densely-packed terraced homes and factories. However, many inner city housing areas have now been pulled down and replaced with high rise flats. SUBURBS- The suburbs began to grow as cities expanded after the 1st world war. Houses are more varied and are often semi detached or detached. There are more gardens and open space. RURAL-URBAN FRINGE- Different land uses are found in this area. Some of the land may be covered in farms, whereas other areas are covered in housing estates. Out-of-town shopping centres and airports are also often found in this area. INDUSTRIAL ESTATES- These have been built on the fringe of many towns and cities, where there is more space for single storey factories and car parks.
URBANISATION is the process of urban growth that leads to a greater percentage of the population living in towns and cities. It is the movement of people from rural areas (countryside) to urban areas (towns and cities). • Advantages • Improved economy- farms surrounding cities can increase production to provide food for sale in cities • Better services- people have better access to services although in LEDCs people may not be able to afford them • Improved income- there are more jobs available and jobs in towns and cities tend to pay more • Disadvantages • Poor housing- problems in housing provision in LEDCs leads to shanty housing being built • Unemployment- Lack of jobs in LEDCs leads to work in the informal sector • Increased traffic congestion and air, water and land pollution (LEDCs and MEDCs) • Problems in rural areas- The rural areas in LEDCs may have insufficient able-bodied workers to farm the land, therefore the agricultural production can be reduced.
Problems in the CBD of MEDC’s CBD Traffic congestion- Towns grew before the motor vehicle were invented so therefore most cities have not adapted easily to cope with the modern levels of traffic. Many local authorities have tried to solve the problem of too many cars by only allowing pedestrians in certain areas of the CBD (pedestrianisation). Many have built urban motorways and flyovers, ring roads and by-passes to divert traffic away from the centre. In London and other cities congestion charges aim to keep non-essential vehicles out of the CBD. Lack of space and high cost of land- In the CBD land is expensive and very scarce, therefore high-rise buildings have been built to combat these problems. Urban Decline - Some parts of the CBD have become run down and boarded up shops and offices are vandalized. This is urban decay and may be caused by competition from large out-of-town shopping centres. Pollution- Water, land and air pollution are very common in the city centre due to heavy traffic, large numbers of workers and nearby heavy industry.
Problems in the inner city of MEDC’s • By the 1960’s and 1970’s large parts of inner cities were in decay. There are three main problems; • poor quality housing with a lack of space and with no proper kitchens, bathrooms and central heating • a decaying environment with pollution, derelict land and a lack of open space • unemployment due to the closure of the old-fashioned industries. • Solutions • in some urban areas, the only solution was comprehensive redevelopment. This meant knocking everything down and starting again. • in other cities, the local authorities were able to use urban renewal which meant taking the current housing and making it fit for modern life by knocking two houses together to create more space, by fitting central heating, insulation and new roofs, etc.
Problems in shanty towns of LEDC • The main problems in the shanty towns of LEDC’s are: • high crime rates • poor transport facilities • poor quality and a lack of affordable housing • land, air and water pollution • lack of employment opportunities
Reasons for Urban Sprawl Urban sprawl is the expansion of an urban area into the countryside Urban sprawl occurs because more people want to live in an urban area and there is a lack of space for new housing, the expansion of industry, transport links, open space, etc. so the urban area builds outwards on to greenfield sites. Such urban growth has engulfed nearby villages, farmland and woodland. At first the growth was not well planned, but urban planners have been trying to control the growth of urban areas by creating green belts and using more brownfield sites.
Advantages of Urban Sprawl • advantages to companies who have the opportunity to locate their companies in edge-of-town shopping centres • cheaper land than within urban locations • provides better access to motorways and airports • Disadvantages of Urban Sprawl • Loss of agricultural land and public open space • Loss of trade in traditional city centres • Increasing pollution and traffic congestion in rural-urban fringe Conservation and Green Belts Green belts were the first attempt to stop urban sprawl. Green belt areas are areas of green and open land on the edge of cities in which urban development is restricted. There is now increasing pressure to build on greenfield sites within this protected land e.g around London Brownfield Sites Brownfield sites are urban sites which have been previously used for other things. For example, old factories which have become disused can be converted into apartments.
Summary • The site of a settlement is the physical land on which a settlement is built • A settlement hierarchy arranges settlements in order of size or importance • The function of a settlement is its purpose- the main ‘work’ that it does. • CBD- The Central Business District is at the heart of a city where the original settlement was sited • INNER CITY- The inner city zone grew during the industrial revolution • SUBURBS- The suburbs began to expand after the 1st world war. Houses are more varied and are often semi detached • RURAL-URBAN FRINGE- many different land uses are found in this area • URBANISATIONis the process of urban growth that leads to a greater percentage of the population living in towns and cities • Urban sprawlis the expansion of an urban area into the countryside