Diamond cubic crystal structure. Silicon makes up 25.7% of the Earth's crust. Most of it is in the form of silicon dioxide, also known as silica: Sand, amethyst, agate, quartz, rock crystal, chalcedony, flint, jasper, and opal
Czochralski single-crystal growth process Bridgman-Stockbarger technique
~ 10-11 Torr less than 10-4 Torr 3. W.T. Tsang, “From Chemical Vapor Epitaxy to Chemical Beam Epitaxy”. J. Cryst. Growth. 95, 121 (1989)
<111> plane Phonon (lattice) scattering. Angle between <100> and <111> planes is 54.7 degree
Donors: group V Phosphorus (P) Arsenic (As) Acceptors: group III Boron (B) Aluminium (Al) p side is higher doped. Russell Ohl in 1939, discovered the PN barrier and is generally recognized for patenting the modern solar cell (US Patent 2402662, "Light sensitive device").
Dose and energy requirements of major ion implantation applications (species shown roughly in order of decreasing usage). D=D0*exp(-EA/kT)