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Networking Components

Networking Components

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Networking Components

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  1. Networking Components LTEC 4550.020 Dainis Krakops

  2. OBJECTIVES • Hub • Switch • Router • Bridge • Gateway • Firewall • Wireless AP

  3. HUB • It is the dumbest and simplest networking device of all these devices; it is also least expensive, least complicated, and least intelligent networking device comparing to router, switch , and bridge. Hub is not very efficient device to communicate data on the network because by default hubs are single broadcast and single collision domain operating in half-duplex mode. Hub operates at the Layer 1 of the OSI model. Price range depends on the size and features and is somewhere between $5 - $125

  4. HUB • All the incoming data into one port is copied and retransmitted out of every port to devices at the other end. Hub doesn't perform any filtering or redirection of data. So, the data send to one computer is seen by all other computers on the network and it is up to the receiving computer to decide if the data is for it. If the data is not addressed for that device, it will immediately refuse delivery. The intended recipient will accept the data and process it further.

  5. HUB • Can temporarily replace a broken network switch • Can be used when performance is not a critical factor on the network • Can be used in a small Local Area Network setting where there is little need to prevent traffic conflicts • Can be used for network extension

  6. SWITCH • Switches are essentially the same thing as Bridges, but usually have multiple ports and filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. It generally contains more intelligence than a hub. It operates in full-duplex mode at Layer 2( some switches have Layer 3 functionality) Switches can range in price anywhere from $10 for a no-name budget switch to well over $10,000 for a high-end Cisco switch

  7. SWITCH • Received data packets are inspected by switch, determining the source and destination device of each packet, and then forwarded appropriately. Each node on network connected to a switch port has a dedicated segment and the full bandwidth all to itself. Switching allows a network to maintain full-duplex Ethernet. Traffic flowing in each direction has a lane to itself - it's a collision-free environment.

  8. SWITCH • Expands network • Use network resources more efficiently • Isolates non-relevant traffic from each segment, relieving congestionand improving performance • Separates collision domains, reducing collisions • Segments, restarting distance and repeater rules • Increases bandwidth for dedicated workstations or servers • Can be used in heavily loaded networks

  9. ROUTER • It is a most complicated and smartest networking device among all the networking devices. It isolate each LAN into a separate subnet and keeps data out of subnets where it doesn't belong. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WAN and LAN. It can listen to the traffic on the entire network and determine the least congested route to its destination. Router is considered a heart of the network. It is a Layer 3 device The price range for router can be as low as $25 and as high as several thousands dollars

  10. ROUTER • Routers don’t just route traffic to other networks, they learn which are the fastest routes and use them first • The router looks at the destination address of each packet sent from the source location. It checks its table to see where this address is there and sends each packet to that address • The router has two basic jobs: • To make sure that information doesn't go where it's not needed so that the volume of data doesn't clog up the network • To make sure the information goes to where it's supposed to go

  11. ROUTER • Routers let computers to share a cable, DSL, or satellite Internet connection • Routers generally offload burden from your computers, leaving more performance for your applications • Routers have filtering that stop local users — such as children — from accessing sites you do not want them to see • Router has built-in security features that protects you from Internet attacks • Some routers support VPN, which allow home users to safely log into their businesses remotely • Routers monitor network usage, and can send email alarms when abnormal things happen • Many routers have wireless capability with strong WPA encryption • Router allows for sharing network peripherals such as printers, wireless speakers, scanner, VOIP Telephones, fax machines

  12. BRIDGE • Bridge is a internetworking device that is used to link two networks, whether they are of different types or just different networks or to divide one network into two. Traditional bridges support one network boundary. Bridge is a Layer 2 device. The cost of the Bridge starts from about $20 and up

  13. BRIDGE • Bridgeforward data based on the MAC address of the sending and receiving devices; It does not know anything about protocols, it simply looks at the destination of the packet before sending. If the destination address is not on the other side of the bridge it will not transmit the data; the only data that is allowed to cross the bridge is data that is being sent to a valid address on the other side of the bridge. No valid address, no data across the bridge

  14. BRIDGE • Effectively reduces bandwidth waste by controlling the traffic flow over a LAN • Increases the functional length of a network by connecting individual LAN segments • Can connect both similar and dissimilar LAN segments

  15. GATEWAY • A network gateway is an internetworking system capable of joining together two networks that use different base protocols. A network gateway can be implemented completely in software, hardware, or as a combination of both. On home networks, a broadband router or typically serves as the network gateway. Gateways are also known as protocol converters that can perform at any OSI model layer. The price range for the Gateway is somewhere between $50 and $2500

  16. GATEWAY • Its basic function is to make a route of the traffic from the computer to the internet and from the internet to the computer • A gateway accepts the data packet and converts it into acceptable protocol in order to further send it to network

  17. GATEWAY • Gateways are the best option to achieve the multimedia communications between dissimilar networks • Gateways are also a key mechanism of any telephony communications. Gateway is offering bridge between telephone network and internet • A network gateway work like a firewall and filters packets • A gateway performs as the interface between local and wide area protocols such as TCP/IP on the Internet • A gateway supervises its client devices, gather their data and execute other task

  18. FIREWALL • A firewall is simply a program or hardware device that filters the information coming through the Internet connection into your private network or computer system The price varies from nothing (you can download a free firewall for personal or SOHO use) to a significant investment of capital. Enterprise firewalls, typically ranging in price from $500 to $20,000

  19. FIREWALL • Firewalls allow or block network traffic between devices based upon rules set up by the firewall administrator. Each rule defines a specific traffic pattern you want the firewall to detect and the action you want the firewall to take when that pattern is detected

  20. WirelessAP • A wireless access point plugs into a hub, switch, or wired router and can relay data between the wireless devices (such as computers or printers) and wired devices on the network over an area of several hundred to a thousand feet which. Wireless Access Point uses 2.4GHz or 5GHz frequency range to send and receive data over electromagnetic radio waves. Wireless AP prices start from $35 and can be as high as $10,000

  21. WirelessAP • What the access point does is to send data requests on behalf of the wireless devices that are connected to it using Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or related standards. Access points act a lot like cellular phone towers: you can move from one location to another and continue to have wireless access to a network

  22. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER Internet Bridge Wireless AP Firewall WAN Switch Hub Gateway LAN Hub

  23. REFERENCES • How do hubs, switches, routers, and access points differ?. (n.d.). Microsoft Windows. Retrieved October 25, 2011, from • Gilani, N. (n.d.). The Advantages of a Network Bridge . eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you. | Retrieved October 24, 2011, from • Russell, M. (n.d.). Router How it works. Wilsons Electronics | Online Electronics Dictionary. Retrieved October 24, 2011, from • Tyson, J. (n.d.). How Firewalls Work. HowStuffWorks "Learn how Everything Works!". Retrieved October 24, 2011, from • What are Gateways - How gatways works. (n.d.). Wimax - What is Wimax Technology - How Wimax works. Retrieved October 24, 2011, from • Why Do I Need a Router When I Already Have an Internet Connection?. (2008, December 8). Support Home Page. Retrieved October 24, 2011, from

  24. Networking Components LTEC 4550.020 Dainis Krakops