Networking Components Hysen Tmava LTEC 4550
Hub • Operates at the Layer 1 of the OSI Model • Regenerates the signal • Does not interpret Data • Has a Uplink Port • Has multiple outputs • Cost~$20-$70 almost Obsolete • Basically the Hub receives traffic on the uplink port and it regenerates and broadcast that traffic to all the other ports. Bad Idea to use this device anywhere because of the collision it creates, except If you want the same date other computers are receiving, to analyze it using wireshark.
Bridge • Operates at the Data Link OSI Model Layer • Single Input and Single Out port • Cost $30--$70, almost obsolete • This device is used when you need to connect two network segments or separate a network into two segments to reduce traffic. Analyzes incoming frames, makes decision on where to direct them, using MAC Addresses
Switch • Operates at the Data Link (Layer 2)OSI Layer • Modern Switches operate at Layer 3 or Layer 4. • Price range from $40 for home and small business switches to $10,000 enterprise switches. • Operates similar to the Bridge, but has multiple ports sometimes called Multiport Bridge. Interprets MAC address to direct traffic, it regenerates traffic but only to the port that it is addressed to.
Switch • Switches are used whenever we want to network different devices the are very popular and are used almost on every network, they are more popular than Hubs because they reduce collision domains. • For example: in the diagram below, the network is connected using a switch in the middle, when the laptop requests information on the server, the communications will occur only between the two devices, not any other device
Router • Operates at Network Layer of the OSI Model • Directs data from one network to another, using logical addresses (IP Addresses). It Tracks nodes, using IP Tables it determines the shortest and fastest path between two nodes, makes communications possible between two nodes regardless of distance or type of network. It requires TCP/IP protocol, and a Routing protocol. Prices: Start at $60 form home, small office use, up to $10,000 for enterprise routers
Router • Router are used and placed at the edge of the network (backbone) whenever you need to connect dissimilar network types, or integrate LANs, with WANs, or have access to the internet.
Gateway • Gateway has multiple meaning, but it is usually a combination of networking hardware and software, and it connects two systems using different formatting communications protocols. A Gateway is usually the same as the Router or Firewall. • Some popular gateways are: E-mail gateway, Internet gateway, LAN gateway, Router voice/data gateway ,Proxy, NAT, etc.
Firewall • A Firewall controls incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining weather they should be allowed through or not. Costs from $70 simple firewall to $5000 enterprise firewall. • You need a firewall to protect your network from unauthorized access and you would install it on the edge of the network, the first device for incoming, the last device for outgoing.
Wireless AP • A Wireless Access Point (AP) receives signaling from a copper cable and it converts it into electromagnetic waves, or wireless. All the computers that are connected to the AP need to be configured correctly such frequency and other setting for the communications to be successful.
Wireless AP • Most home and small office wireless AP, act as Routers and Switches. • You need a Wireless AP whenever you want to use wireless devices, and you would install the wireless AP directly to the modem or router. • Wireless AP cost between $80 and $5000