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MISSION COMMAND

MISSION COMMAND

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MISSION COMMAND

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  1. MISSION COMMAND

  2. Doctrine - Summary • Fighting power – physical, moral and conceptual components • Manoeuvrist Approach - with its implications for: • Conduct of operations • Command

  3. Manoeuvrist Approach Surprise Pre-emption Tempo Dislocation Disruption Simultaneity

  4. Observation Action Orientation Decision

  5. Command Philosophy • Timely decision-making • Understanding higher commander’s intent

  6. Command Philosophy • Timely decision-making • Understanding higher commander’s intent • Responsibility to fulfil that intention: • Common doctrine • Mutual trust • Obedience • Initiative

  7. Principles Practice Command Philosophy (Tenets) MISSION COMMAND

  8. Principles of Mission Command • Unity of effort

  9. Achieving Unity of Effort • The Commander’s Intent • Main and Supporting Efforts • Mission Statements

  10. Orders Format • Situation • En Forces • Fr Forces • Atts and Dets • Mission • Execution • Concept of Ops • Intent • Scheme of Manoeuvre • Main Effort • Subordinates’ missions • Co-ordinating instructions • Service Support • Command & Signal

  11. Intent OrdersFormat • Situation • En Forces • Fr Forces • Atts and Dets • Mission • Execution • Concept of Ops • Intent • Scheme of Manoeuvre • Main Effort • Subordinates’ missions • Co-ordinating instructions • Service Support • Command & Signal

  12. “…One part of the order I did, however, draft myself - the intention. It is usually the shortest of all paragraphs, but it is always the most important, because it states - or it should - just what the commander intends to achieve. It is the one overriding expression of will by which every action by every commander and soldier in the army must be dominated.” Defeat Into Victory Field Marshal Slim 1944

  13. Commander’s Intent - Overview A succinct summary of how he proposes to achieve his purpose - articulated through effects, so subordinates understand the links between Main and Supporting Efforts. Also a description of how he thinks achieving his task will meet his given purpose (his unique contribution to his superior’s intent)

  14. Commander’s Intent - Overview A succinct summary of how he proposes to achieve his purpose - articulated througheffects, so subordinates understand the linksbetween MainandSupporting Efforts. Also a description of how he thinks achieving his task will meet his given purpose (hisunique contributionto his superior’s intent)

  15. Orders Format • Situation • En Forces • Fr Forces • Atts and Dets • Mission • Execution • Concept of Ops • Intent • Scheme of manoeuvre • Main Effort • Subordinates’ missions • Co-ordinating instructions • Service Support • Command & Signal

  16. Main Effort Orders Format • Situation • En Forces • Fr Forces • Atts and Dets • Mission • Execution • Concept of Ops • Intent • Scheme of manoeuvre • Main Effort • Subordinates’ missions • Co-ordinating instructions • Service Support • Command & Signal

  17. Main Effort The activity which the commander considers crucial to the success of his mission at that time.

  18. Orders Format • Situation • En Forces • Fr Forces • Atts and Dets • Mission • Execution • Concept of Ops • Intent • Scheme of manoeuvre • Main Effort • Subordinates’ missions • Co-ordinating instructions • Service Support • Command & Signal

  19. Subordinates’ Missions Orders Format • Situation • En Forces • Fr Forces • Atts and Dets • Mission • Execution • Concept of Ops • Intent • Scheme of manoeuvre • Main Effort • Subordinates’ missions • Co-ordinating instructions • Service Support • Command & Signal

  20. Mission Statements Task(s) + Purpose

  21. Archers & artillery Roman Infantry Roman Cavalry Caesar Maximus

  22. Mission Statements Own Mission: Task(s) + Purpose

  23. The missions assigned to subordinates, together, fulfil the mission assigned to the commander. Mission Statements Own Mission: Task(s) + Purpose Subordinate 1: Task + Purpose Subordinate 2: Task + Purpose Subordinate 3: Task + Purpose

  24. There is a common thread to the subordinates’ purposes, so that when taken together they fulfil the Commander’s mission Mission Statements Own Mission:Task + Purpose Subordinate 1: Task +Purpose Subordinate 2: Task +Purpose Subordinate 3: Task +Purpose

  25. Main Effort Supporting Effort Supporting Effort Archers & artillery Roman Infantry Roman Cavalry T: force German forces out of the woods P: enable infantry to engage the enemy in the open T: fix enemy forces in the open P: enable Cavalry, on the main effort, to attack the enemy from the rear T: kill German tribal leader and his bodyguard P: cause the culmination of the militant tribes T: pacify the German tribes P: bring peace to the Empire’s northern borders Caesar T: defeat militant German tribes P: bring peace to the northern borders Maximus

  26. Achieving Unity of Effort • The Commander’s Intent • Main and Supporting Efforts • Mission Statements

  27. Maximus’ Orders to his Legions (1) • Mission: defeat militant German tribes in order to bring peace to the northern borders

  28. Maximus’ Orders to his Legions (1) • Mission: defeat militant German tribes in order to bring peace to the northern borders • Intent: We will force the enemy out of the forest so we can fix him in the open. Once he is fixed, we will surprise him by an attack in the rear, striking to destroy his leadership - the decisive element of the operation. Once his leadership is destroyed, I believe we will break the will of the German tribes, thus eventually bring peace to the Northern borders

  29. Maximus’ Orders to his Legions (2) • Main Effort: killing of enemy leadership by the cavalry

  30. Maximus’ Orders to his Legions (2) • Main Effort: killing of enemy leadership by the cavalry • Scheme of Manoeuvre: Cavalry preparatory move to FUP in cover, signal once in position. Artillery and archers then force enemy out of the forest using fire. Infantry advance into open ground, to lure the enemy further into the open, and then fix him. Cavalry then strike from the forest into the enemy’s rear, gaining shock and surprise, to kill the enemy leadership. Once enemy is reduced to a disorganised rabble, massacre as many as possible. Enslave the rest.

  31. Maximus’ Orders to his Legions (3) Subordinate Missions • Archers and Artillery T: force German forces out of the woods P: enable infantry to engage the enemy in the open • Infantry T: fix enemy forces in the open P: enable Cavalry, on the main effort, to attack the enemy from the rear • Cavalry T: kill German tribal leader and his bodyguard P: cause the culmination of the militant tribes

  32. Principles of Mission Command • Unity of effort • Decentralisation (Freedom of Action)

  33. “…In time [commanders at all levels] developed to a marked degree a flexibility of mind and a firmness of decision that enabled them to act swiftly to take advantage of sudden information or changing circumstances without reference to their superiors, [This] requires in the higher command a corresponding flexibility of mind, confidence in subordinates, and the power to make its intentions clear through the force.” FM Slim

  34. Principles of Mission Command • Unity of effort • Decentralisation • [ Mutual] Trust

  35. “... He, the soldier, must have confidence in his leaders and know that whatever dangers and hardships he is called upon to suffer, his life will not be flung away.” FM Slim

  36. Principles of Mission Command • Unity of effort • Decentralisation • Trust • Mutual understanding

  37. DESTROY ADVANCE TO CONTACT BLOCK ATTACK CLEAR DEFEAT DELAY Language of Mission Command DENY DELAY DEFEND SEIZE SECURE PENETRATION HOLD

  38. Principles of Mission Command • Unity of effort • Decentralisation • Trust • Mutual understanding • Timely and effective decision-making

  39. Review The Decision Review TIME THE DECISION POINT NOW Upwards Direction (Received and Given) Execution Consultation Sideways Consideration Downwards

  40. “…One of the most difficult things we have to do in war is to recognize the moment for making a decision. Information comes in degrees. Shall we make a decision now or shall we wait a little longer? It is usually more difficult to determine the moment for making a decision than it is to formulate the decision itself.” Adolph Von Schell

  41. Principles Practice Command Philosophy MISSION COMMAND

  42. Mission Command in Practice • Orders – intentions, missions and context • What effect – and why • Appropriate resources allocated • Minimum control – maximum freedom • Subordinates decide ‘how’ to achieve their mission

  43. “… Never tell people how to do things, tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity” Patton

  44. Summary • Freedoms and speed of action

  45. Summary • Freedoms and speed of action • Intents and Effects • Resources • Minimum control measures