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Exploring the Solar System: all about spacecraft/spaceflight PowerPoint Presentation
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Exploring the Solar System: all about spacecraft/spaceflight

Exploring the Solar System: all about spacecraft/spaceflight

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Exploring the Solar System: all about spacecraft/spaceflight

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  1. Exploring the Solar System: all about spacecraft/spaceflight • How can we explore the Solar System? • - types of space missions • How do we get there? • - launch & orbits • - gravity assist • - fuel/propulsion • III. Onboard Systems • - everything but the kitchen sink… Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  2. 1. Flyby Missions • usually the first phase of exploration • (remember Mars & Mariner 4?) • spacecraft following continuous orbit • - around the Sun • - escape trajectory • (heading off into deep space) Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  3. Famous Example: VOYAGER 2 - launch 1977 with VOYAGER 1 - flew by Jupiter in 1979 - Saturn in 1980/1981 - Uranus (V2) in 1986 - Neptune in 1989 - will continue to interstellar space - study of interplanetary space particles (Van Allen) - data expected until 2020 Clouds on Neptune Interplanetary Space & the Solar Wind Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  4. Other Flyby examples: Underway:Stardust Comet return mission - launched in 1999 - interstellar dust collection - asteroid Annefrank flyby - Comet encounter (Jan 2004) - Earth/sample return (Jan 2006) Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  5. Future flyby: Pluto-Kuiper Belt Mission - to be launched in January 2006 - swing by Jupiter (gravity assist*) - fly by Pluto & moon Charon in 2015 - then head into Kuiper Belt region (tons of solar system debris) - to study objects that are like Pluto Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  6. 2. Orbiter Spacecraft • designed to travel to distant planet & enter into orbit around planet • must carry substantial propulsion (fuel) capacity has to withstand: • - staying in the ‘dark’ for periods of time • - extreme thermal variations • - staying out of touch with Earth for periods of time • usually the second phase of exploration Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  7. Famous Example: Galileo - why would a mission to Jupiter be called Galileo? - launched in 1989 aboard Atlantis Space Shuttle - entered into Jupiter’s orbit in 1995 - highly successful study of Jupiter & its moons Burned up in Jupiter’s atmosphere last week! Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  8. 3. Atmospheric Spacecraft - relatively short mission - collect data about the atmosphere of a planet or planet’s moon - usually piggy back on a bigger craft - needs no propulsion of its own - takes direct measurements of atmosphere - usually is destroyed; rest of spacecraft continues its mission Example: Galileo’s atmospheric probe Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  9. Example: Galileo’s atmospheric probe - traveled with Galileo for nearly six years - took five months from release to contact with atmosphere - collected 1 hour’s data IN Jupiter’s atmosphere Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  10. 4. Lander Spacecraft - designed to reach surface of a planet/body - survive long enough to transmit data back to Earth - small, chemical experiments possible Mars Viking Lander Many Successful Examples: - Mars Viking Landers - Venus Lander - Moon Landers (with humans!) Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  11. Example: NEAR Asteroid Rendevous Mission fly to a nearby asteroid: Eros – 1-2 AU orbit around Sun Near-Earth Asteroid Eros ~ twice size of NYC Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  12. Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  13. Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  14. 5. Penetrator Spacecraft - designed to penetrate the surface of a planet/body - must survive the impact of many times the gravity on Earth - measure properties of impacted surface No Currently Successful Examples: - Deep Space 2 (lost with Mars Polar Lander) But more to come in future: - “Ice Pick” Mission to Jupiter’s Moon Europa - “Deep Impact” Mission to a Comet Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  15. Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  16. 6. Rover Spacecraft - electrically powered, mobile rovers - mainly designed for exploration of Mars’ surface - purposes: taking/analyzing samples with possibility of return - Pathfinder was test mission – now being heavily developed Mars Pathfinder Mars Exploration Rovers Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  17. 7. Observatory Spacecraft • - in Earth orbit (or at Lagrange points) • - NASA’s “Great Observatories”: • - Hubble (visible) • - Chandra (X-ray) • - SIRTF (infrared) • - Compton (gamma-rays) • Large, complex scientific instruments • - up to 10-20 instruments on board • - designed to last > 5-10 years SOHO SIRTF (near-IR) Chandra (X-ray) Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  18. using LEAST amount of fuel – saves big $$$ to be light How do we get there? 1. First must leave the Earth’s surface - must ‘escape’ into orbit - gets an initial boost via rocket to go into Earth’s orbit – needs an acceleration of 5 miles/sec - during orbit, you sometimes need to adjust height of orbit by increasing/decreasing energy: - practically: firing onboard rocket thrusters - a speed of 19,000 miles/hr will keep craft in orbit around Earth Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  19. using LEAST amount of fuel – saves big $$$ to be light How do we get there? 2. To get to an outer orbit: Mars - spacecraft already in orbit (around Sun) - need to adjust the orbit – boost via rocket – so that the spacecraft gets transferred from Earth’s orbit around Sun to Mars’ orbit around Sun - but you want spacecraft to intercept Mars on Mars’ orbit - matter of timing: small window every 26 months - to be captured by Mars – must decelerate - to LAND on Mars – must decelerate further & use braking mechanism Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  20. using LEAST amount of fuel – saves big $$$ to be light How do we get there? 3. To get to an inner orbit: Venus - spacecraft already in orbit (around Sun) on Earth - need to adjust the orbit once off Earth to head inwards to Venus - instead of SLOWING down (you’d fall to Earth), you use reverse motion in your solar orbit, effectively slowing down to land on Venus’ orbit - but you want spacecraft to intercept Venus on Venus’ orbit - matter of timing: small window every 19 months Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  21. How do we get there? using LEAST amount of fuel – saves big $$$ to be light 4. Gravity Assist • - can use the law of gravity to help spacecraft • propel themselves further out in the SS • - Voyager: its trajectory was aimed at getting • to Jupiter’s orbit just after Jupiter • - Voyager was gravitationally attracted to • Jupiter, and fell in towards Jupiter • - Jupiter was “tugged on” by Voyager and its • orbital energy decreased slightly • then Voyager had more energy than was • needed to stay in orbit around Jupiter, and • was propelled outward! • - repeated at Saturn & Uranus Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  22. At what speeds are these things traveling through space? • The currently fastest spacecraft speeds are • around 20 km per second (72,000 km per/hr) • For example, Voyager 1 is now moving • outwards from the solar system at a speed of • 16 km per second. At this rate, it would • take 85,000 years to reach the nearest star • 3,000 human generations! • Even assuming that we could reach a speed • of 1/10th of the velocity of light, it would • still take a minimum of 40 years or so to • reach our nearest star. Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  23. using LEAST amount of fuel – saves big $$$ to be light How do we get there? 5. Concerns about energy sources - traditional energy boost: chemical thrusters - most of energy is provided on launch – very costly! especially for large, heavy, complex instruments - a few times per year spacecraft fires short bursts from its thrusters to make adjustments - mostly free falling in orbit, coasting to destination Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  24. How do we get there? using LEAST amount of fuel – saves big $$$ to be light 5. The Future: Ion Propulsion - Xenon atoms are made of protons (+) and electrons (-) - bombard a gas with electrons (-) to change charge - creates a build up of IONS (+) - use magnetic field to direct charged particles - the IONS are accelerated out the back of craft - this pushes the craft in the opposite direction Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  25. to operate the ion system, use SOLAR panels • sometimes called solar-electric propulsion • can push a spacecraft up to 10x that of chemical propulsion • very gentle – best for slow accelerations Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  26. HISTORY of ION PROPULSION • first ion propulsion engine – built in 1960 • over 50 years in design/development at NASA • very new technology • has been used successfully on test mission: • Deep Space 1 Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  27. Europe’s Lunar Explorer: Smart 1 Probe - launched 27 September 2003 (Saturday) - 2-2.5 year mission - will study lunar geochemistry - search for ice at south Lunar pole - **testing/proving of ion propulsion drives!** Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  28. Onboard Systems on Most Spacecraft: Galileo 1. data handling 2. flight control 3. telecommunications 4. electrical power 5. particle shields 6. temperature control 7. propulsion mechanism 8. mechanical devices (deployment) Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  29. Time & Money Considerations Planning for a new spacecraft - plans start about ~10 years before projected launch date - must make through numerous hurdles/reviews - very competitive: 1/10-25 average acceptance rate • Costs! (circa 2000) – total NASA budget (2000) was $13 billion • Basic Assumptions for design/development of small craft: • Cost of spacecraft and design: $50M- Cost of launch: $50M + $10M per AU + $10M per instrument- Cost of mission operations: $10M / month- Initial speed: 3 months per AU of distanceFor every additional instrument, add $100M and increase travel time by 25% • (e.g., for four instruments, double the travel time)A probe, lander, or balloon counts as two additional instruments.If you are going to the outer Solar System (Jupiter or beyond), • you must add plutonium batteries, which count as one instrument. Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang

  30. This powerpoint was kindly donated to www.worldofteaching.com http://www.worldofteaching.com is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is a completely free site and requires no registration. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching. Solar System - Dr. C.C. Lang