[ 6.1 ] The Federal Bureaucracy Learning Objectives • Define a bureaucracy. • Identify the major elements of the federal bureaucracy. • Explain how groups within the federal bureaucracy are named. • Describe the difference between a staff agency and a line agency.
[ 6.1 ] The Federal Bureaucracy Key Terms • bureaucracy • bureaucrat, • James Madison • administration • Staff agencies • Line agencies,
What Is a Bureaucracy? The Federal Government is an immense organization. Its employees deliver the mail, regulate business practices, collect taxes, defend the nation, administer Social Security programs, manage the national forests, explore outer space, and do dozens of other things every day. Indeed, you cannot live through a single day without somehow encountering the federal bureaucracy.
What Is a Bureaucracy? • Defining Bureaucracy • The Benefits and Drawbacks of Bureaucracy
What Is a Bureaucracy? A U.S. border patrol officer checks a driver's documents. He is one of more than 2.7 million people who work for the agencies and organizations that make up the federal bureaucracy.
What Is a Bureaucracy? To qualify as a bureaucracy, an organization must be based on these three principles. Analyze Charts What are some advantages and disadvantages of this structure?
Executive Branch Bureaucracy The federal bureaucracy is all of the agencies, people, and procedures through which the Federal Government operates. It is the means by which the government makes and administers public policy—the sum of all of its decisions and actions. Nearly all of that huge bureaucracy is located in the executive branch. Not all of it, however, because both Congress and the federal court system are bureaucracies, as well.
Executive Branch Bureaucracy The Internal Revenue Service is part of the huge executive branch bureaucracy, responsible for processing all federal tax returns. The agency handles millions of pages of paperwork each year.
Executive Branch Bureaucracy Each executive branch agency is created by act of Congress to execute the nation's laws. Analyze Charts Why do you think the executive branch is the largest part of the federal bureaucracy?
How Units Are Named The titles given to the many units that make up the executive branch vary a great deal. The name department is reserved for agencies of Cabinet rank. Beyond the title of department, however, there is little standardized use of titles among the agencies.
How Units Are Named • Common Names • Irregular Names • Acronyms as Names
How Units Are Named Many government agencies are well known by their acronyms. Analyze Political Cartoons What point does the cartoon make about bureaucracies and their names?
How Units Are Named A federal agency, the Office of Personnel Management, tracks a wide range of data related to federal employees. Analyze Charts Where do the majority of federal civilian employees work?
Staff and Line Agencies The units that make up any administrative organization can be classified as either staff or line agencies. The Federal Government units are also described as such.
Staff and Line Agencies The federal bureaucracy is made up of both staff and line agencies. Analyze Charts What are some examples of each type of agency?
Staff and Line Agencies A team from the EPA removes asbestos from a home in New Mexico. Agencies that execute policy and operate 'on the line,' like the EPA, are called line agencies.
Quiz: What Is a Bureaucracy? In the Federalist No. 51, James Madison wrote that 'you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.' According to the text, to which part of the government does 'it' refer? To which part of the government does 'itself' refer? A. members of Congress; the President B. the President; members of Congress C. elected officials; appointed bureaucrats D. appointed bureaucrats; elected officials
Quiz: Executive Branch Bureaucracy What is one way that Article II of the Constitution has contributed to the creation of the federal bureaucracy? A. It gives the President the power to consult with the heads of the executive departments. B. It mandates the creation of 15 Cabinet departments. C. It is completely silent on the organization of the executive branch. D. It stipulates that all three branches of the government be set up as bureaucracies.
Quiz: How Units Are Named Which is the MOST LIKELY reason for variation in the names of government units? A. Congress has tried to avoid the use of acronyms when naming federal agencies. B. The names were originally chosen by the Framers and have remained unchanged. C. The Constitution stipulates the names for all government units. D. Government units were created at different times for varying purposes.
Quiz: Staff and Line Agencies The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides funding for science and engineering endeavors in the United States. For example, the NSF provides equipment, such as telescopes, to institutions where scientists are studying astronomy. What kind of agency is it? A. administrative agency B. commission agency C. line agency D. staff agency