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Earth Science Lab Practical Review

Earth Science Lab Practical Review

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Earth Science Lab Practical Review

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  1. Earth Science Lab Practical Review

  2. Station 1: Rocks and Minerals COLOR -Least useful property STREAK CLEAVAGE/FRACTURE -Porcelain Streak plate DENSITY/HEFT LUSTER How are Minerals Identified?? -Metallic or Non-metallic CRYSTAL SHAPE HARDNESS -Glass plate INTERNAL ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS SPECIAL PROPERTIES

  3. STREAK • The color of a mineral when finely powdered

  4. LUSTER • Metallic – reflects light like metal (shiny) • Nonmetallic – any mineral which DOES NOT exhibit shiny metallic characteristics

  5. LUSTER- Now you try… NON-METALLIC

  6. LUSTER- Now you try… NON-METALLIC

  7. LUSTER- Now you try… METALLIC

  8. Hardness • Resistance of a mineral to being scratched

  9. Hardness • If the mineral SCRATCHES the glass – it has a hardness of 5 or higher. • If the mineral DOES NOT SCRATCH glass – it has a hardness of below 5.

  10. CLEAVAGE/FRACTURE • Cleavage- when a mineral break along a flat, smooth surface • Fracture- when a mineral breaks along an irregular surface

  11. CLEAVAGE OR FRACTURE CLEAVAGE

  12. CLEAVAGE OR FRACTURE CLEAVAGE

  13. CLEAVAGE OR FRACTURE FRACTURE

  14. ROCKS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS -cementation -compaction -fossils -layers -form underwater -pieces and parts of other rocks

  15. ROCKS METAMORPHIC ROCKS -HEAT + PRESSURE! -Foliated -Recrystallization -Banding -Mountains Schist Gneiss

  16. ROCKS IGNEOUS ROCKS -Solidification of magma or lava -Glassy -Vesicular -Extrusive -Intrusive Pumice Obsidian Scoria Diorite

  17. Finding the Epicenter of an Earthquake How do you find the epicenter of an earthquake? 1. Determine the arrival of the p-wave and the s-wave.

  18. Finding the Epicenter of an Earthquake 2. Find the DIFFERENCE between the arrival of the p-wave and the arrival of the s-wave. 11:05 a.m. -11:01 a.m. 4 minutes WHAT DO YOU DO WITH THIS NUMBER?!?!?

  19. Finding the Epicenter of an Earthquake • Difference between the arrival times was 4 minutes • MEASURE AND MATCH!! • The distance to the epicenter is… 2600 km

  20. Finding the Epicenter of an Earthquake • What does the circle surrounding Boise, Idaho represent? 2,600 km

  21. Finding the Epicenter of an Earthquake How many cities do you need in order to find the epicenter of an earthquake 3!!! -Why? -Because you need the circles to intersect and that can only happen with 3 cities.

  22. Finding the Epicenter of an Earthquake Can you tell where the epicenter of the earthquake is from this information?

  23. Finding the Epicenter of an Earthquake Where is the epicenter of this earthquake?

  24. Finding the Epicenter of an Earthquake OH NO!!! What do you do if this happens?

  25. Eccentricity What is the formula for eccentricity? Distance between foci E =______________________ Length of the major axis

  26. Eccentricity An ellipse FOCI YOU MUST MEASURE TO THE NEAREST .1 OF A CENTIMETER!! MAJOR AXIS

  27. Eccentricity 5.0 cm = --------------------------

  28. Eccentricity Eccentricity 5.0 cm = -------------------- = 9.2 cm .543

  29. Eccentricity • If this were the Earth’s orbit, where would the Sun be located? • Where would the Earth’s orbital velocity be the fastest? SUN