sara van gerwen audrey archibald n.
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  1. Sara Van Gerwen, Audrey Archibald Marriage

  2. WHAT IS MARRIAGE? • Marriage is a social union or legal contract between individuals that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found

  3. WHY DO PEOPLE GET MARRIED? • They fall in love • Afraid of being alone • Feel obligated if pregnant, or have child • Religious beliefs

  4. DIFFERENT KIND OF MARRIAGES. • Gay or Lesbian marriage • Polygamy • Arranged marriage

  5. WHAT MAKES A MARRAIGE WORK? • Respect • Trust • Faithfulness • Love • Commitment • Honesty • Sexually satisfied • Show appreciation


  7. Many people do not plan to remain single, but intend to marry when they: • Finished their education. • Establish a career • Earn some money • Get a divorce • Find a suitable partner • In some countries the parents choose their spouse for their child. • Arranged marriages may involve talking with parents and/or the parents of the families involved  Long process of negotiation

  8. Mate Selection within Arranged Marriages • Mates are chosen for you by parents, elders, or marriage brokers (matchmakers essentially) • Possible Factors • Family Wealth • Social status • Education • Health • Physical appearance and ability to have children

  9. Mate Selection within Arranged Marriages • Incest Taboos – People may not marry certain family members; in place to prevent inbreeding or congenital disabilities but also to limit jealousy within families • In Canada there is a long list of those legally ineligible for marriage including some relations by marriage or adoption. • In Canada, you cannot marry someone by which you have ties of consanguinity (blood), affinity (marriage), or adoption. • Therefore you cannot marry your half-sibling, step-sibling or your adopted sibling.

  10. Consanguinity and Children of the Israeli Kibbutz • Virtually all cultures have an aversion to marriage between relatives too closely related genetically. It is known that there is a higher risk of disease and early death for the offspring of parents who are closely related. A Czech research study of 160 children born to women who had an incestuous relationship with a father, brother, or son revealed that more than half the offspring did not survive long enough to have children themselves. Of 95 children born to the same mothers by non-related father, over 90 percent were healthy enough and lived long enough to have their own children.

  11. Consanguinity and Children of the Israeli Kibbutz • So strong is the taboo against consanguity that the aversion to marry sibling can also apply to those who are like siblings. On Israeli kibbutzim, non-related children were raised as if they were siblings (communal lifestyle). Children of both sexes shared dormitories and washrooms and studied and worked together. IN one study of the 2769 second generation kibbutz members raised together as if they were sibling, not one marriage among them occurred. The biological rationale for limiting marriage partners it the basis of social norms and laws forbidding marriage with close relatives.

  12. Fun facts • Levirate - In some polygamous cultures marries rules say that a man should marry the widow of his dead brother. • In other societies people practice the “sororate” which is marriage to a wife’s sister. • Example: man may marry wife’s sister if his wife can’t have children. Some of the resulting children would be considered those of the first wife. • Example: wife dies; her family (kin group) will provide a sister as a wife for the widower. • Marriage is more of an alliance than a joining of individuals.

  13. Mate Selection within Arranged Marriages • Romantic love is not considered to be a good basis for marriage in many cultures. • Some cultures practice “child betrothal”; Children under age of 10 promised to a family for marriage, seen as legal contract that cannot be broken without compensation. This is done to keep “love attachments” from developing.

  14. Mate Selection within Arranged Marriages • Forced Marriage Help Website

  15. Mate Selection within Arranged Marriages • In arranged marriages, personal fulfilment is not necessarily a priority. • Young people are taught that marriage represents a union of families and that mate selection to too important to be left in the hands of a young person. • Some immigrants to Canada from Egypt, Lebanon, Japan, Indian and Pakistan prefer to arrange marriages for their children. • With industrialization came the trend of free choice marriage. Arranged marriage still exists but young people want the right to veto their parents’ decision.

  16. Free-Choice Marriage • Although we think we marry for love most Canadians choose their partners according to certain unspoken rules. • Many of the same considerations are made with free-choice marriage as would be with arranged marriages. • Companionship • Sex • Children • Financial Support • Getting away from home  Wedding ritual right of passage

  17. Free-Choice Marriage • Most young people in North America choose their own spouses, but they are often introduced to potential partners by friends, siblings and relatives. • When we fall in love we tend to do so according to these implicit rules about who is attractive and appropriate.

  18. Free-Choice Marriage • If there were no implicit rules involved in mate selection we wouldn’t have stories of forbidden love (i.e.. Romeo and Juliet … that girl and that vampire, etc.)

  19. Free-Choice Marriage • Sometimes biology helps us to avoid people who are too close to our gene pool • How Smell Influences Sexual Attraction • And sometimes it doesn’t …. • Forbidden Love Story • Rules of Attraction Strange Story

  20. Free-Choice Marriage Theories • There are many theories on why we select mates. We will discuss 4: • Social homogamy: Choose people from similar socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. • Live near each other • Go to the same school • Belong to the same organizations

  21. Social Homogamy • North American married couples generally are of the same race, within 3-4 years of age, with similar education, social status and income. • You may see many interracial relationships, marriages between older and younger people, and cases of hypergamy (marring “up”) but these situations do not happen often.

  22. Free-Choice Marriage Theories • Theory of Complementary Needs • Marrying those that meet your psychological needs • Men with dominant mothers seek mother substitute • Abused seek an abuser • Insecure person seeks someone who flatters them • We may not know what our needs are when we marry, or may realize this person does not satisfy our needs anymore  marital conflict & divorce

  23. Free-Choice Marriage Theories • Developmental Theory of Mate Selection • End product of series of interactions (like an escalator, once you are on it is hard to get off) • Date • One person negotiates for more commitment • Friends / family make assumptions … put ideas into you head … apply subtle pressure .. Etc. etc. Boom you are married.

  24. Free-Choice Marriage Theories • Ideal Mate Theory • Parental role models and past dating experience give us an idea of what the “ideal mate” would be • We look for someone who has these personality and physical characteristics  your “type”

  25. Mate Selection Conclusion • Although we think we marry for love, most Canadians choose their partners according to certain unspoken rules. • When we fall in love, we tend to do so according to these implicit rules about who is attractive and appropriate.

  26. Purpose of Marriage Breanna&&Jessica

  27. What is marriage? • In 1984 marriage was defined as, a socially legitimate sexual union that starts with a public announcement and is considered to be somewhat permanent . • Fact; more people today form first sexual union, by cohabiting and not marrying. • The practice of marring varies widely in Canada so we have to examine its diversity to understand how Canadians form couples.

  28. Helen Fischer • Pair-bonding is essential to human survival • To keep the human species alive we have to procreate and protect our children. • Both men and women have the biological urge to reproduce. • So pairing is biological or physical but marriage is social.

  29. Why choose to marry? • Most people choose to marry for personal reasons. • Gives them a more adult status within society. • Allows pooling of resources for higher standard of living • Provides sense of purpose • Cultural expectations

  30. Why choose to marry? • May marry for social and psychological reasons. • Marriage provides friendship and companionship • Fact; Media suggests Marriage is a “Happy” state, in which one can love or be loved.

  31. Why People Get Married

  32. Why People Get Married Most people dream of falling in love and marrying some day Even people who are in an arranged marriages believe that after the ceremony they will fall in love

  33. Couples in a marriage are expected to be close friends, love each other unconditionally and support one another In Canada marriage is assumed to be a relationship based upon and enduring romantic attraction to one another

  34. Married women believe that having a lasting relationship as a couple is necessary for marriage Along with deep affection and a strong love is necessary

  35. Men marry based on friendship, children, to avoid dating and to gain responsibility and social acceptability

  36. Why choose to marry? • Back to social exchange theory: • It is better to be married than to be single • Monica McGoldrick suggests • “Men and women marry because it is just a natural thing to do.” • To marry has simply been part of the “natural” progression through life.

  37. Extras • The beginning of the 21st Century, it is evident that many people are not marrying. • Marriage rate has declined • Men and Women continue to form conjugal relationships.

  38. Extras • For this reason the study of marriage now must include other types of unions such as common-law and cohabitation.

  39. History of marriage Christian and Katrina

  40. What is marriage • Marriage as a binding relationship between a man and a woman was probably one of the earliest developments when human societies began to organize themselves. It regulates sexual activity so that the biological father can identify his offspring.

  41. What is marriage • For most of history marriage has been viewed as an economic unit. • Share resources and property • Love was a seldom a consideration in the decision to marry, and most women had little to say in their choice of partner.

  42. Monogamy • Monogamy refers to a form of marriage in which an individual has only one spouse at any one time. However, monogamy may also refer to the more general state of having only one mate at any one time.

  43. Polygyny It is the practice of a man having more than one wife, appears to have been the preferred form of marriage in most societies historically, since 84 percent of recorded cultures have allowed it.

  44. Polygyny • Some anthropologists believe that monogamy only occurs when a man CANNOT support more than one wife.

  45. Polyandry • It is the practice wherein there are several men are required to support a wife and children.

  46. Forms of Marriage in Societies Throughout History

  47. The historical roots of marriage traditions and legal practices in Canada can be traced back to the Ancient Romans, Greeks and Hebrews. To understand the diversity of intimate relationships in Canada, the historical roots of Canadian Aboriginal Peoples and immigrants from non-European cultures also need to be considered.

  48. Marriage in Ancient Times • The marriages of the ancient Hebrew people over 4000 years ago were usually arranged between patriarchal extended families for the purpose of producing sons. • A betrothal, or promise to marry might have been agreed upon when a boy and a girl were quite young, but the marriage might not occur until many years later.

  49. The bride’s value as a potential mother was symbolized by the payment of a bride prize by the groom’s family to the bride’s family. The bride’s family give her a “dowry” in the form, household items, or land, so that she was able to establish a home for her new family. She also gained the dower rights to property from her husband for her support.

  50. Marriage in Ancient Times • This was recorded in a marriage contract and the wife was expected to obey her husband and bear sons (or risk being divorced). • Love was seldom a factor in betrothal. • Most of these households were patriolocal or located near the husband’s family. • In Ancient Rome as the roman empire expanded, the previous patriolocal homes became more equal as the men were away for longer periods of time.