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Elisa Henning André Vitisin Estrada Andreza Kalbusch

ANALYSIS OF WATER CONSUMPTION IN LAVATORIES OF A UNIVERSITY IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL. Elisa Henning André Vitisin Estrada Andreza Kalbusch. Agenda . Evento Trabalho Introdução Métodos Resultados Considerações Finais. International Water Association – IWA Desafios – soluções

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Elisa Henning André Vitisin Estrada Andreza Kalbusch

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  2. Agenda  • Evento • Trabalho • Introdução • Métodos • Resultados • Considerações Finais

  3. InternationalWaterAssociation – IWA Desafios – soluções Águas urbanas e águas residuais Evento

  4. Uso da água • Comportamento do usuário • Demanda de água – diminuição / aumento • NRW – non revenuewater • Eficiência e nível de qualidade • Certificação • Avaliação de riscos • Adaptação à seca • Case Studies from Around the World Evento

  5. Participantes • Europa, Ásia, Austrália, África e América do • Norte • Exhibition • Trabalhos • Proceedings • Revistas da IWA • Importância PROEVEN Evento

  6. Waterdiplomacy • Waterliteracy • Ações políticas • Tecnologias • Modelagem • Estatística – Análise de dados Evento

  7. Introduction • The knowledgeofhowwaterisusedisessential for proposing, implementingandassessingwatersavingmeasures. • Research in thisfieldisimportant for theimprovementofwater management and for thedevelopmentoftechnology for promotingtherational use ofthis vital resource. • The demand for waterconsumption in Brazilhasbeenestimatedtoincrease 28% by 2025 (ANA, 2010).

  8. Introduction - Objectives • Thisresearchaimstoanalyzewaterconsumption in a university in southernBrazil, byusingsmartmeters. • Throughthesesensors, data werecollectedonwaterconsumption (quantityandfrequencyof use) fromfaucets in therestroomsof a classroombuilding. • dailywaterconsumption profiles per restroomand in eachplumbingfixture. • The differences in consumptionandfrequencyof use

  9. Introduction • The smartmeters are high-resolutionsensorshavemade it possibleto make progress in studies - characterizewaterconsumption • Horsburghet al. (2017) theUniversityof Utah (USA);Abdelalim, O'Brien & Shi (2015) - 45 universitybuildings in Canada;Gao et al. (2015) analyzedthewater system atNortheasternUniversity (China). • Meirelles et al (2018) specificallyresearcheduserpreferencerelatedtothe use ofwater-saving devices onfaucetsatthe Aveiro Campus, in Portugal.

  10. Introduction • Specificallyrelatedtofaucets, Barreto (2008) performed a study in thecityof São Paulo anddemonstratedthatfaucets are responsibleby 17.4% ofwaterconsumption in homes. • Proença andGhisi (2010) showedthatfaucets in commercialbuildings in Florianópolis are responsibleby 8.9% to 37.8% ofbuildingswaterconsumption. • Regardingschools, theconsumptionfromfaucetscanreachupto 72.7% ofthewaterconsumptionofaninstitution (Fasola et al, 2011). • Thus, studyingwaterconsumption in faucetsisessentialtoprovidingbettersupport for policies andactionsaimedatwaterconservation in buildings

  11. Methodology • This research was carried out in a public university in the city of Joinville, located in the southern Brazil

  12. Methodology • Data were collected on the water consumption from the sensors (quantity and frequency of use) from faucets in the restrooms block, with two restrooms on each floor. • Monday to Saturday • Data were collected - 2017/1

  13. Methodology • The typicaldailyconsumption profile oftheperiodwasexpressed in forty-eight (48) half-hour intervals – in liters per half hour • Identifypeaksandflows, as well as theconsumptionpatternfromeachfaucet

  14. Methodology • Descriptivestatisticsandclassicalstatisticaltestwereapplied for data analisys: • Shapiro-Wilk • ANOVA, Kruskall-Wallis • TukeyandConover. • The adoptedsignificancelevelwas α = 5%. • Allstatisticalanalyzeswereperformedusing R version 3.5.0 (R CORE TEAM, 2018).

  15. Methodology • Basedonthe NBR 13713 (ABNT, 2009) Braziliantechnical standardand NBR 13713 (ABNT, 2013), it waspossibletoindicate: • themaintenance time bestsuitedtofaucetsbasedonthenumberofturnsonperformedduringtheperiodandtypologyofthebuilding.

  16. Results • Profiles consumptions

  17. Results • Comparison of variables: related to the placement of the faucet

  18. Results • Comparison of variables: related to each day of the week

  19. Results Comparisonofvariables: Volume Floorp-value < 0.001 Genderp-value < 0.001 Numberofactivations Floor    p-value < 0.001 Gender p-value < 0.001

  20. Results • Maintenance time • NBR 15575 defines thatmaintenance time from3 to 5 years. • NBR 13713 define thefaucetshouldbecapableof200,000openingandclosurecycles. Therefore, themaintenance time for faucets, shouldoccureverysevenyears, sincefaucetsweremanufactured for thisspecification. 

  21. Results • Accordingtotechnical standards themaintenanceperiodshouldoccur in intervals 3 to 5 years for extendingthelifespanoftheappliancesandpreventionagainstleaks, wastedwaterandusercomfort • Based in thisscenario it wouldbeinterestingtoconsidertwomaintenancephases for optimizefaucetoperation • Preventiveonthemostactivatedfaucets – 3 yearinterval • Performmaintenanceevery 7 years https//listatorneira.info

  22. Conclusion • Peakconsumptionwasconfirmedduringclassrecessperiods • The downstairsfaucetsclosesttodoors are themostused in thewomen’srestroomsand in themiddle are mostused in themen’s • Theupstairsrestroomsfaucets are lessused • TheactivationsdecreaseonFridaysandSaturdays • Regardingthemaintenance,thedownstairsrestroomsneed more attention as theyhavehigherflow rates and are also more in demandbythepublic • More stringentmeasuresshouldbeadopted for calibratingfaucets for savingwater

  23. Reference • ANA. Agência Nacional de Águas. Atlas Brasil: abastecimento urbano de água: panorama nacional. Brasília: Ana, 2010. 72 p. Disponível em: <http://atlas.ana.gov.br/Atlas/downloads/atlas/Resumo%20Executivo/Atlas%20Brasil%20-%20Volume%201%20-%20Panorama%20Nacional.pdf>. Acesso em: 20 set. 2018. • ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS. NBR 13713: Instalações hidráulicas prediais - Aparelhos automáticos acionados mecanicamente e com ciclo de fechamento automático - Requisitos e métodos de ensaio. Rio de Janeiro: Moderna, 2009. 27 p. • ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS. NBR 15575: EDIFICAÇÕES HABITACIONAIS — DESEMPENHO - PARTE 1: REQUISITOS GERAIS. Rio de Janeiro: Moderna, 2013. 71 p. • BARRETO, Douglas. Perfil do consumo residencial e usos finais da água. Ambiente Construído, Porto Alegre, v. 8, n. 2, p.23-40, jun. 2008. • COMINOLA, A. et al. Benefits and challenges of using smart meters for advancing residential water demand modeling and management: A review. Environmental Modelling & Software, [s.l.], v. 72, p.198-214, out. 2015. Disponível em: <https://ac.els- cdn.com/S1364815215300177/1-s2.0-S1364815215300177-main.pdf?_tid=7b79a293-38c6-4af3-bdac-1ecf95227d29&acdnat=1530898631_b3fb698647dbdec460d502d45c9d331b>. Acesso em: 02 jul. 2018. • GURUNG, T. R.; STEWART, R. A.; SHARMA, A. K.; BEAL, C. D. Smart meters for enhanced water supply network modelling and infrastructure planning. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, [S.l.], v. 90, p.34-50, 15 set. 2014. Disponível em: <https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344914001347?via=ihub>. Acesso em: 25 fev. 2018. • BRASIL. Lei n. 13.647, de 09 de abr. de 2018. Estabelece a obrigatoriedade da instalação de equipamentos para evitar o desperdício de água em banheiros destinados ao público., Brasília, DF, abr. 2018. • R CORE TEAM. An Introduction to R. Auckland: R Core Team, 2018. 105 p. Disponível em: <https://cran.r-project.org/doc/manuals/R-intro.pdf>. Acesso em: 03 abr. 2018.

  24. Thank you! Santa Catarina State University - Brazil Elisa.henning@udesc.br Acknowledgements to the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development – CNPq (grant number 460310/2014-3),

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