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From the Restoration to the Enlightenment in England

From the Restoration to the Enlightenment in England

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From the Restoration to the Enlightenment in England

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  1. From the Restoration to the Enlightenment in England The Neo-Classical Age, The Age of Satire, The Age of Reason

  2. Charles II (1660-1685) The RestorationCourt was knows for ahedonistic relief thatCromwell’s reign wasover. Cavaliers become “Tories”; Roundheads become “Whigs” Theaters restored/Restoration Drama Read pp. 510-11

  3. James II Abdicated in 1688 Toleration Act 1689

  4. William & Mary Signed English Bill of Rights (see next page)

  5. English Bill of Rights, 1689“These are the true, ancient, indubitable rights and liberties of the people of England.” A king cannot suspend laws without the consent of Parliament. A king must have Parliament’s approval to raise taxes & maintain an army. Anyone accused of a crime has a right to a trial by jury. A king must call frequent Parliamentary sessions to amend, strengthen, and preserve the law.

  6. Queen Anne James II’s daughter Moderate No children despite 17pregnancies Died without heir

  7. Act of Settlement—after Anne—only Protestants could hold the throne of England George I Founds Hanoverian dynastyGeorge I—1714-27George II—1727-60George III—1760-1820George IV—1820-1830 George III is King during American Revoluion

  8. Overall Political Climate England is firmly a constitutional monarchy, but criticism of the crown must still be veiled.

  9. Science—The Royal Society of London Inaugurated under Charles II Inspired by Sir Francis Bacon’s inductive approach Followers: Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, Edmund Halley, Isaac Newton Nullius in verba—”on the word of no one” Find universal laws of nature The Scientific Method—gains widespread

  10. Ideas About Nature Rational and orderly Underlying patterns of harmony

  11. Women’s Roles Lady Mary Wortley Montagu—managed to educate herself and defied her parents to marry the man she loved. Wrote essays and letters dealing with feminism Letters to her daughter unpublished during her lifetime—more conventional daughter was afraid of embarrassmentRead: “Letter to Her Daughter”—We will discuss highlighted passages and questions

  12. Architecture • Sir Christopher Wren (Charles II hired to rebuild London after the Great Fire)—17th & early 18th century

  13. Architecture Richard Boyle, Lord Burlington(a flower of the Italian Palladio)—Palladian architecture

  14. The Royal Crescent, Bath England

  15. Architecture Lancelot “Capability” Brown (landscape architecture)Created very controlled, idealized designs for gardens, giving them the look of Italian paintings.

  16. Satire in the Visual Arts Test-Punctuation: William Hogarth

  17. Look for . . . • A small black patch indicating syphillis • Dogs mirroring/parodying people • Use of exaggerated details • Details indicating criticism of the upper classes.

  18. Marriage A La Mode An indictment of mercenary marriages

  19. The Sleeping Congretation

  20. Philosophy Find universal laws of human nature Poetry and all art should imitate nature Neoclassical writers wre best, should be imitated Paves way for democracy in 19th and 20th centuries

  21. John Locke • Man born free and equal • Influenced Declaration of Independence • Believed in right to revolution • Wanted people to use reason vs. relying on doctrine

  22. Jean Jacques Rousseau • Adversary of Voltaire’s • Social contract—cooperation necessary • Noble savage • “Manis born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” • Ownership & power of monarchy artificial constructs • Deist

  23. Hobbes • Influenced The Federalist Papers supporting ratification of the constitution • Said power must be representative of the people to be legitimate • Leviathan—if we did not agree to live under rule, life would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."

  24. Voltaire • Power of the individual to improve the world • Harsh satire against the church • Deist • Life is filled with pain and tragedy to the point of absurdity • We shouldn’t rely on logic only, but also use common sense • His novel Candide pits optimism of Enlightenment thinking against the pessimism of one who understood human nature; highlights the world’s hypocrisy • Parody of a travel narrative

  25. Literature Poetry should reflect the classical poets The Battle of the Books, Jonathan SwiftModern Spider – “spins dirt and poison”Ancient Bee– “goes to the most fragrant flowers of nature to find the ‘sweetness and light’ out of which it makes its honey.”—Read “Battle of the Books” pp 687 & 688 Satire is a tool to correct the moral and social behavior of society and to inspire a more “balanced, moderate, and harmonious life”“Satire is a sort of glass, wherein beholders do generally discover everybody’s face but their own.” Jonathan Swift

  26. Literature Satiric essays written in heroic couplets Satiric papers—The Spectator Satiric novels—Tom Jones, Henry Fielding Travel diaries with accounts of exotic places

  27. Travel Beginning in the 17th century—the Age of Exploration—Britain has become increasingly entranced with foreign climes. Travel made people question the absolutism of various religious dogmas—hadn’t the rest of the world been getting along without them? Both Candide and Gulliver’s Travels are parodies of travel narratives during the time and satires of their society

  28. Authors to Know Alexander Pope—Epigrams, Essay on Man, Rape of the Lock (mock epic); translated Homer’s epics Jonathan Swift – Gulliver’s Travels, “A Modest Proposal” Samuel Johnson—1st dictionary Voltaire—Candide—a satire of corruption in the aristocracy and the Roman Catholic church. Also satirizes optimism/progressivism as naïve. References the possibility of a “noble savage.” Mocks the possibility of a human utopia.

  29. Samuel Johnson Known for his witty aphorisms Worked more than 8 years completing his dictionary (1755) Granted a pension for life by King George III Knew OlaudahEquiano and helped his servant Francis Barber achieve independence and tried to help his marriage with an Englishwoman gain acceptance.

  30. Ink and Incapability--Blackadder PREMISE: George IV, the prince, who is known as a philanderer and a “thicko,” decides to improve his reputation by sponsoring one of the works of Samuel Johnson Novels are gaining in popularity—especially sensational novels. Despite their presence in the film, both George IV’s Regency and the Romantic poets are anachronistic. The Romantics—especially Byron and Shelley-- were known for their revolutionary sentiments and their womanizing.