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Associative Learning in Hierarchical Self Organizing Learning Arrays

Associative Learning in Hierarchical Self Organizing Learning Arrays

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Associative Learning in Hierarchical Self Organizing Learning Arrays

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  1. Associative Learning in Hierarchical Self Organizing Learning Arrays Janusz A. Starzyk, Zhen Zhu, and Yue Li School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, U.S.A.

  2. Organization • Introduction • Network structure • Associative learning • Simulation results • Conclusions and future work

  3. Introduction - SOLAR • SOLAR –Self Organizing Learning Array • A concept inspired by the structure of biological neural networks • Regular, two or three-dimensional array of identical processing cells, connected to programmable routing channels • Self-organizing in individual cells and the network structure

  4. Introduction - SOLAR • SOLAR vs. ANN • Deep multi-layer structure with sparse connections • Self organized neuron functions • Dynamic selection of interconnections • Hardware efficiency • Online learning A 15 X 7 SOLAR A 15 X 3 ANN

  5. Introduction - Associative Learning • Hetero-associative (HA) • To associate different types of input signals e. g. a verbal command with an image • Auto-associative (AA) • To recall a pattern from a fractional part e. g. an image with missing part • The proposed approach: • An associative learning network in a hierarchical SOLAR structure - HA and AA www.idi.ntnu.no/~keithd/ classes/advai/lectures/assocnet.ppt

  6. Introduction • Network structure • Associative learning • Simulation results • Conclusions and future work

  7. Network Structure • Two or three dimensional multi-layer regular structure • 2 D networks: Input span – rows and network depth – columns • 3 D networks, better for image applications • “Small world” network connection • More local connections with short Euclidean distance (as in biological neural networks) • Few distant connections

  8. Network Structure • Hierarchical network connection • Each neuron only connects to the preceding layer • Neuron connections: • Redundant initial inputs to be refined in learning • 2 inputs (I1 / I2) and 1 output O • Feed-forward and feed-back links

  9. Introduction • Network structure • Associative learning • Simulation results • Conclusions and future work

  10. Associative learning – feed-forward • Semi-logic inputs and internal signals: • scaling from 0 to 1, 0.5 = unknown; • 0 = determinate low, 1 = determinate high; • > 0.5 = weak high, < 0.5 = weak low. • The I1/I2 relationship is are found with: • P(I1 is low), P(I1 is high), P(I2 is low) & P(I2 is high) • The joint probabilities, e.g. P(I2 is low | I1 is low) • The conditional probabilities, e.g.

  11. Associative learning – feed-forward • Compare the conditional probabilities against a confidence interval: , where N is # samples. • If P(I2 | I1) – CI > threshold, I2 can be implied from I1

  12. Associative learning – feed-forward A neuron is an associative neuron if I1 can be implied from I2 and I2 can be implied from I1, otherwise it is a transmitting neuron Six possible I1/I2 distributions for associative neurons. A semi-logic function is designed for each one.

  13. Associative learning – feed-forward • In an associative neuron: • Functions are designed for data transformation and feedback calculation. • f1 to f4– for data centered in one dominant quadrant. • f5 to f6– for data mainly in two quadrants • Neuron output is 0.5 with an unknown input.

  14. Associative learning – feed-forward • In a transmitting neuron: • The input with higher entropy (dominant input) is transmitted to O, with the other is ignored. • I1 is the dominant input if • O may be an input to other neurons. • O receives feedback Of from connected neurons, which generate feedback to its inputs.

  15. Associative learning – feedback • The network generates feedback to the unknown inputs through association.

  16. Associative learning – feedback • N1 -> transmitting neurons • Of is passed back to the input. • N2 -> associative neurons with determined inputs • Feedback takes no effect and information passes forward. • N3 -> associative neurons with active feedback and inactive input(s) • Of creates feedbacks I1f and I2f through the function f, • These neurons only pass information backwards. • N4 -> actively associating neurons with inactive feedback • If one of their inputs is inactive, it will be overwritten based on its association with the other input and the neuron’s function f.

  17. Associative learning – feedback • Calculation of the feedback (using f5): With an active output feedback, I1f is determined based on f5 and weighted using w5. w5 measures the quality of learning.

  18. Introduction • Network structure • Associative learning • Simulation results • Conclusions and future work

  19. Simulation results • The TAE database (from University Wisconsin-Madison) • 151 instances, 5 features and 3 classes • The Iris plants database • 150 instances 4 features and3 classes • The glass identification Database • 214 instances, 9 features and 6 classes • Image Recovery • Two letters: B and J

  20. Simulation results - TAE database Features coded into binary format with sliding bars and classified using orthogonal codes: Not hierarchical; Connections distribution Gaussian; vertically (STD = 30) and horizontally (STD = 5); correct rate = 62.33 %

  21. Simulation results - Iris database Not hierarchical; Connections distribution Gaussian; vertically (STD = 30) and horizontally (STD = 5); correct rate = 73.74 %

  22. Simulation results - Iris database Hierarchical; vertical connections 80% Gaussian (STD = 2) and 20% uniform; correct rate improved to 75.33 %

  23. Simulation results - Iris database • The hierarchical structure appears advantageous. • Using equal number of bits for features and class IDs gives better rate. • Performance further improved to 86%with mixed feature/classification bits.

  24. Simulation results – glass ID database • The depth of learning is related to the complexity of the target problem. • With more classes, more actively associating neurons and more layers are needed. Average number of actively associating neurons per layer, with 3 / 6 classes

  25. Simulation results - Image Recovery • A 2-D image recovery task. • 200 patterns are generated by adding random noise to 2 black-white images of letters B and J. The network was trained with 190 patterns and tested using 10 patterns. • Mean correct classification rate: 100% Training patterns An Average image of training patterns

  26. Simulation results - Image Recovery Testing result and recovered images Testing result and recovered image using input redundancy

  27. Introduction • Network structure • Associative learning • Simulation results • Conclusions and future work

  28. Conclusion and Future Work • SOLAR has a flexible and sparse interconnect structure designed to emulate the organization of a human cortex • It handles a wide variety of machine learning tasks including image recognition, classification and data recovery, and is suitable for online learning • The associative learning SOLAR is adaptive network with feedback and inhibitory links • It discovers the correlation between inputs and establishes associations inside the neurons • It can perform auto associative and hetero associative learning • It can be modified to perform value driven interaction with environment