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Paleozoic Vertebrates and Plants

Paleozoic Vertebrates and Plants

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Paleozoic Vertebrates and Plants

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  1. Paleozoic Vertebrates and Plants Chapter 13 Part 2

  2. Chapter 12&13 summary

  3. Review of Paleozoic vertebrates • Jawless fish • Jawed fish • Eventually to amphibians

  4. Can amphibians take over the world? • Dependence on water for reproduction

  5. Amniote egg • Egg hatch as mini adult • Skip larval stage • With amniote egg: reptiles

  6. Oldest known reptile - Mississippian

  7. Oldest reptile - Mississippian • Reptile differences: Skull, jawbone better for chewing

  8. Pennsylvanian reptilesHylonomus 30 cm long • Small for agility • Easier to keep warm/burrow • Easier to heat by sun

  9. Pennsylvanian reptiles • Trapped in trees? • Made dens there?

  10. Reptiles appear in Carboniferous • Permian: reptiles dominate & amphibians displaced • Why so successful? • Advanced: • Reproduction • Movement • Jaws/teeth

  11. Permian reptiles • Dominant group: Pelycosaurs (finbacks) • Herbivores and carnivores

  12. Dominant group: Pelycosaurs (finbacks) • How can you tell herbivore vs. carnivore?

  13. Finback reptile fossil • Purpose of sail to: • Scare off attacker? • Protection? • Sexual display? • Thermal regulation?

  14. Permian reptiles • Pelycosaurs extinct in Permian • Succeeded by therapsids • Mammal-like reptiles

  15. Permian therapsids • Small-medium animals • Start of mammal features • Fewer skull bones • Larger lower jaw • Teeth with different functions • More vertical legs • Hair?

  16. Permian therapsids • Small-medium animals • Start of mammal features • Fewer skull bones • Larger lower jaw • Teeth with different functions • More vertical legs • Hair?

  17. Permian therapsids • Small-medium animals • Start of mammal features • Fewer skull bones • Larger lower jaw • Teeth with different functions • More vertical legs • Hair?

  18. Permian therapsids • Small-medium animals • Start of mammal features • Fewer skull bones • Larger lower jaw • Teeth with different functions • More vertical legs • Hair?

  19. Permian theraspids • Endothermic? (warm-blooded) • Maintain constant body temperature • Why important? • How to prove/disprove?

  20. End of Paleozoic • 90% of reptiles were therapsids • 2/3 of reptiles wiped out in Permian extinction • Plants were less affected

  21. Two groups of plants • Nonvascular: mosses, liverworts, fungi need water for survival. • Vascular plants: tissue system to move water, nutrients (most land plants) • Earliest land plants: nonvascular • Evolved into vascular plants

  22. Earliest vascular plant spores: Ordovician • Nonvascular: mosses, liverworts, fungi need water for survival. • Vascular plants: tissue system to move water, nutrients (most land plants) • Earliest land plants: nonvascular • Evolved into vascular plants

  23. What do plants need to develop to be vascular? • Tissue to transport water/nutrients • Tissue to support plant body • Avoid desiccation with outer wall • Protection from UV • Roots to collect water/nutrients from soil • Roots to anchor plant • Leaves for photosynthesis

  24. Which came first? • Land plants or land animals?

  25. Oldest land plant, Silurian • Simple leafless stalk with spores • Seedless vascular plants • Amphibian of plant world

  26. Early Devonian landscape • Early Devonian: low-growing plants • Late Devonian: 30 foot tall plants

  27. Devonian ferns • Early Devonian: low-growing plants • Late Devonian: 30 foot tall plants

  28. Devonian plants • First: seedless vascular plants • Seedless plants need water for reproduction • Next: seed plants • Why seeds?

  29. Seed plants: late Devonian • Seedless vascular dominate Carboniferous • Why plants important in Carboniferous?

  30. Carboniferous swamps • 70% of coal made from seedless vascular trees

  31. Carboniferous flowerless seed plants • Drier, higher land

  32. Paleozoic plants • By end of Permian: • Flowerless seed plants take over • Why seed plants not seedless? • Climate drier and warmer

  33. Carboniferous plants • Glossopteris • Seed fern

  34. Paleozoic plant evolution