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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Preview Section 1: Sex and Gender Identity Section 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Section 3: Gender Inequality Section 4: Ageism Section 5: Inequality in America’s Elderly Population Chapter Menu

  3. Chapter Preview · Section 1 Sex and Gender Identity (pages 310–315) All societies expect people to behave in certain ways based on their sex. Through socialization, members of a society acquire an awareness of themselves as masculine or feminine. Chapter Preview 1

  4. Chapter Preview · Section 2 Theoretical Perspectives on Gender(pages 316–321) The functionalist perspective focuses on the origins of gender differences. Conflict theory looks at the reason gender differences continue to exist. Symbolic interactionism attempts to explain the ways in which gender is acquired. Chapter Preview 2

  5. Chapter Preview · Section 3 Gender Inequality (pages 322–329) Women today are still subject to prejudice and discrimination. This imbalance is seen most clearly in the areas of economics, law, and politics. Chapter Preview 3

  6. Chapter Preview · Section 4 Ageism (pages 330–332) The relatively low social standing of older people is based on ageism. Each of the theoretical perspectives has a unique slant on ageism. Chapter Preview 4

  7. Chapter Preview · Section 5 Inequality in America’s Elderly Population (pages 333–338) The poverty rate for America’s elderly population stands at just under 10 percent. Members of racial and ethnic minorities are in the poorest ranks. Older people exert political influence through their high voting rate and their support of special interest groups. Chapter Preview 5

  8. Chapter Preview-End

  9. All societies expect people to behave in certain ways based on their sex. Through socialization, members of a society acquire an awareness of themselves as masculine or feminine. Behavioral differences between men and women are culturally conditioned. Section 1-Preview

  10. sex biological determinism gender identity Section 1-Key Terms

  11. A B C D Why do you think men and women behave differently? A.Genetics B.Environment C. Gender identity D.Biological determinism Section 1-Polling Question

  12. Defining Male and Female • Sex is the biological difference between male and female. • Two views: • Biological determinism is the belief that behavioral differences are the result of inherited physical characteristics. • There is no scientific evidence to support this. Section 1

  13. Defining Male and Female (cont.) • Gender identity is the awareness of being masculine or feminine, based on culture. • Girls and boys gradually learn to behave as their parents expect. • Nature versus nurture: Does biology or socialization play a greater role in gender differences? Section 1

  14. A B C D How much influence do you think society puts on males and females, ultimately defining their behavior? A.Much influence B.Some influence C. Little influence D.No influence Section 1

  15. Biology, Culture, and Behavior • The brain structure of men and women differs, causing different traits. • These similar traits span dozens of different cultures. • Does this point to a biological cause for behavior differences? Section 1

  16. Biology, Culture, and Behavior (cont.) • Sociologists tend to argue that gender-related behavior is not primarily the result of biology. • Margaret Mead’s research supports this view. • While biological characteristics exist, they can be modified through social influences. Section 1

  17. A B C D How important is it that males and females display different behavior? A. Very important B.Somewhat important C. Not very important D.Not important at all Section 1

  18. Section 1-End

  19. The functionalist perspective focuses on the origins of gender differences. Conflict theory looks at the reasons gender differences continue to exist. Symbolic interactionism attempts to explain the ways in which gender is acquired. Section 2-Preview

  20. gender socialization Section 2-Key Terms

  21. A B C D Why do you feel gender differences are necessary? A.Conflict theory B.Symbolic interactionism C. Gender socialization D.All of the above Section-Polling Question

  22. Functionalism and Gender • Functionalists believe that early humans created such a division of labor—men as hunters and women as gatherers—because men were more expendable than women. • Dysfunction exists today because of this tradition. Women in the Workplace Section 2

  23. A B C D How much influence did the early division of labor have on the dysfunctions of today? A.Much influence B.Some influence C. Little influence D.No influence Section 2

  24. Conflict Theory and Gender • According to this theory, men want to maintain the status quo so they can preserve the privileges they enjoy without sharing them with women. • However, conflict theorists see the traditional gender roles as outdated and believe that women have every right to enter demanding career fields. Section 2

  25. A B C D Do you agree with the following statement: “men do not want women as competition in their career field?” A.Yes B.No C. Not sure D.Sometimes Section 2

  26. Symbolic Interactionism and Gender • Gender socialization is the process of boys and girls learning to act the way they are “supposed to act.” • Parents transfer values and attitudes regarding how boys and girls should behave. • Babies are given gender-specific gifts. Section 2

  27. Symbolic Interactionism and Gender(cont.) • Boys and girls are given chores according to sex. • The school environment tends to encourage assertive behavior in boys and demure behavior in girls. • Peer groups also encourage traditional gender roles. Gender Inequality Section 2

  28. A B C D Which of the following are reasons why women are shortchanged in the school systems? A.Gender socialization B.Demure behavior is expected C. Women are expected to act like ladies and keep quiet D.All of the above Section 2

  29. Section 2-End

  30. Although great progress has been made, women today are still subject to prejudice and discrimination. This imbalance of power is seen most clearly in the areas of economics, law, and politics. Section 3-Preview

  31. sexism occupational sex segregation Section 3-Key Terms

  32. A B C How strongly do you feel that women are still discriminated against in the workplace? A.Very strongly B.Somewhat strongly C. Not very strongly D. Not strongly at all Section 3-Polling Question

  33. Women as a Minority Group • Sexism is defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, and values used to justify gender inequality. • Sexist ideology—the belief that men are naturally superior to women—has been used and is still being used to justify men’s leadership and positions of power. Section 3

  34. Women as a Minority Group (cont.) • Women are gaining more respect, but gaps still exist in areas such as social rights, privileges, and rewards. Section 3

  35. A B C Given the previous chapters, can you explain why this inferior view of women still exists? A.Yes B.No C. Not sure Section 3

  36. Occupational and Economic Inequality • The most important labor development in the United States over the past 30 years has been a dramatic increase in the number and proportion of women in the workforce. Composition of the U.S. Labor Force, by Sex: 1870–2012 Section 3

  37. Occupational and Economic Inequality (cont.) • Women are experiencing occupational sex segregation—the fact that women hold lower-status positions in the workforce. Section 3

  38. Occupational and Economic Inequality (cont.) • Women must work 7 days to earn what men make in 5 days. • Furthermore, women of race and ethnicity earn even less. What Women Earn Compared to Men Female-to-Male Earnings: 2004 Section 3

  39. Knowing this information about inequality, what are the reasons it is not being remedied? A.Sexism B.Occupational sex segregation C. Social rights D. All of the above • A • B • C • D Section 3

  40. Legal and Political Inequality • Many laws have been enacted under the auspices of being safeguards against abuse and exploitation of women. • However, women were denied certain jobs because of these laws. • Passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 nullified these laws, but the effects still linger. Women’s Wages Compared with Men’s Wages, by Race and Ethnicity Section 3

  41. Legal and Political Inequality (cont.) • Differences by gender in criminal law exist as well. • Although women constitute more than half of the population, they hold a relatively small proportion of important political positions. Percentages of Women in Elective Offices Section 3

  42. Legal and Political Inequality (cont.) • The proportion of women in appointed offices is also poor. • The number of women holding public office in the U.S. is among the lowest in the Western world. Women in National, State, and Local Political Positions, 2005 Section 3

  43. A B C D How strongly do you feel that women should be discriminated against in the workplace due to the fact that they might become pregnant? A.Very strongly B.Somewhat strongly C. Not very strongly D.Not strongly at all Section 3

  44. Section 3-End

  45. The relatively low social standing of older people is based on ageism. Each of the theoretical perspectives has a unique slant on ageism. Stereotypes are often used to justify prejudice and discrimination, which can harm the self-concepts of older people. Section 4-Preview

  46. age stratification ageism Section 4-Key Terms

  47. A B C Do you feel older people tend to have low social standing in the U.S.? A.Very much so B.Not very much C. Not at all Section 4-Polling Question

  48. Defining Ageism • Age stratification occurs when the unequal distribution of scarce resources in a society is based on age. • The rationale for this inequality comes in the form of ageism—a set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, and values used to justify prejudice and discrimination against a particular group. U.S. Suicide Rates by Age, Gender, and Racial Group, 2002 Section 4

  49. A B C Does ageism occur in every culture? A.Always B.Sometimes C. Never Section 4

  50. Functionalism and Ageism • According to functionalists, elderly people in a given society are treated according to the role the aged play in that society. • In many societies, ageism is not an issue. • In colonial America, age brought respect. • Industrialization, and the need for people to remain current in their working skills, changed the view of old age. Section 4