19 Objectives (1 of 3) • Define emergency incident rehabilitation. • Describe why fire fighters need emergency incident rehabilitation. • List and describe the types of extended fire incidents where fire fighters need emergency incident rehabilitation.
19 Objectives (2 of 3) • Describe the seven functions of a rehabilitation center. • List four parts of revitalization. • Describe the types of fluids that are well suited for fire fighters to drink during emergency incident rehabilitation.
19 Objectives (3 of 3) • Describe four other types of incidents where fire fighters would benefit from emergency incident rehabilitation. • Describe the types of food that are well suited for fire fighters to eat during emergency incident rehabilitation. • Describe the personal responsibilities related to emergency incident rehabilitation.
19 Introduction (1 of 2) • You must take care of yourself so you can continue helping others. • Rehabilitate: to restore to a condition of health or to a state of useful and constructive activity. • Even seasoned fire fighters can quickly become fatigued.
Without rest and recovery, you may experience: Fatigue Headaches Gastrointestinal problems Depression Flashbacks Amnesia 19 Introduction (2 of 2)
19 Factors, Cause, and Need for Rehabilitation (1 of 5) • Physiological job stressors: • From sleep to full activity in seconds • Not enough time to eat or drink • Physical demands • Emotional stress • Environmental job stressors: • Adverse weather conditions • Unfamiliar locations • Smoke-filled environments
19 Factors, Cause, and Need for Rehabilitation (2 of 5) • Personal protective equipment (PPE) • Can weigh up to 40 lbs. • Contributes to heat stress • Increases energy needed to move • Traps body heat
19 Factors, Cause, and Need for Rehabilitation (3 of 5) • Dehydration • State in which fluid losses are greater than fluid intake • Can lead to shock and even death if untreated • Body can lose up to 2 quarts of fluid in less than 1 hour • Fluid loss reduces strength, endurance, and mental judgment
19 Factors, Cause, and Need for Rehabilitation (4 of 5) • Energy Consumption • During strenuous activity, the body burns carbohydrates and fats for energy • Essential to refuel energy sources with nutritious food
19 Factors, Cause, and Need for Rehabilitation (5 of 5) • A well-rested, well-conditioned person has more endurance and can tolerate the stresses of firefighting.
19 Types of Incidents Affecting Fire Fighter Rehabilitation (1 of 3) • Rehabilitation required at all incidents • Small incidents may require only water for rehydration. • Major incidents may require a full rehabilitation center.
19 Types of Incidents Affecting Fire Fighter Rehabilitation (2 of 3) • Structure fires • Intense heat and stressful conditions cause rapid dehydration and fatigue. • High-rise fires • Energy resources are drained quickly.
19 Types of Incidents Affecting Fire Fighter Rehabilitation (3 of 3) • Wildland fires • Crews need to work in shifts so their bodies can recover. • Large fires may require hundreds of fire fighters and take weeks to extinguish.
19 Other Types of IncidentsRequiring Rehabilitation (1 of 3) • Hazardous materials incidents • Long-duration search-and-rescue activities • Large-scale training activities
19 Other Types of IncidentsRequiring Rehabilitation (2 of 3) • Non-emergency events • Athletic events • Stand-by assignments
19 Other Types of IncidentsRequiring Rehabilitation (3 of 3) • Nourishment and fluid replacement are essential whenever fire fighters must be ready for action. • Weather conditions • Heat causes rapid dehydration and fatigue. • High humidity reduces evaporative cooling. • Cold weather can cause hypothermia.
19 How Does Rehabilitation Work? Seven Functions: • Physical Assessment • Revitalization • Medical Evaluation and Treatment • Regular Monitoring of Vital Signs • Transportation • Critical Incident Stress Management • Reassignment
19 Physical Assessment • Fire fighter’s vital signs should be taken. • Signs and symptoms of fatigue indicate need for rehabilitation. • Crew should be questioned and observed for signs of emotional stress.
19 Revitalization (1 of 7) • Four components of revitalization • Rest • Fluid replacement • Nutrition • Temperature stabilization
19 Revitalization (2 of 7) • Rest • Opportunity to disengage from stressful activities and remove PPE • Fluid replacement • Rehydrate with water. • Restore electrolytes with diluted sports drinks. • Avoid caffeinated and sugar-rich drinks.
19 Revitalization (3 of 7) • Nutrition • Glucose needed to burn fat and release energy • Need to balance glucose levels for the body to work properly • Too low = weakness, shaking • Too high = sluggishness
19 Revitalization (4 of 7) • Nutrition (continued) • Carbohydrates • Major source of fuel • Readily used by the body during high-intensity activities • Proteins • Used by the body to grow and repair tissues
19 Revitalization (5 of 7) • Nutrition (continued) • Fats • Used for energy, insulating and protecting organs, and breaking down vitamins • Simple sugars stimulate insulin production • Sugar consumption can lead to lower energy levels.
19 Revitalization (6 of 7) • Nutrition (continued) • During short incidents • Consume low-sugar, high-protein sports bars. • During extended incidents • Eat smaller, balanced meals that include complex carbohydrates. • Proper nutrition is part of a healthy lifestyle.
19 Revitalization (7 of 7) • Temperature stabilization • Remove turnout gear as soon as possible. • Remove damp clothing and replace with blankets. • Consider using cold compresses. • Move to climate-controlled environment. • In cold conditions, use a heated rehabilitation center.
19 Medical Evaluation and Treatment, Monitoring of Vital Signs • Medical evaluation and treatment • Abnormal vital signs, pain, and injury necessitate further medical treatment. • Monitoring of vital signs • Monitor at regular intervals. • Vital signs should return to normal before fire fighter is reassigned.
19 Transportation to a Hospital • Ambulance available at rehabilitation centers to: • Transport ill fire fighters • Transport injured fire fighters
19 Critical Incident Stress Management • CISM • Confronts critical incidents, defuses them, and directs the fire fighter toward physical and emotional balance • Team members may meet with companies or individual fire fighters.
19 Reassignment • Fire fighters released to reassignment following: • Rest • Rehydration • Refueling • Rechecking that they are fit for duty • May return to the same or different tasks
19 Personal Responsibility in Rehabilitation “Safety Begins and Ends with You” • Take care of yourself first, your team second, others third. • Know your own limits. • Be responsible: participate in emergency incident rehabilitation.
19 Summary (1 of 5) • Rehabilitation is a special designated area where emergency personnel can rest. • Rehabilitation helps prevent injuries and illness. • Rehabilitation centers are often required at wildland fires and structure fires that are large or continue for long periods of time.
19 Summary (2 of 5) • Other incidents requiring rehabilitation include: • Hazardous materials incidents • Long-duration search and rescue activities • Training activities and athletic events may require rehabilitation centers. • Adverse weather conditions increase the need for rehabilitation.
19 Summary (3 of 5) • Seven parts of revitalization: • Physical assessment • Revitalization • Medical evaluation and treatment • Monitoring of vital signs • Transportation to a hospital • Critical incident stress management • Reassignment • Revitalization is of most concern to new fire fighters.
19 Summary (4 of 5) • Replace fluids before signs of dehydration become obvious. • Meet nutritional needs during minor incidents with low-sugar, high-protein sports bars. • During longer incidents, eat small frequent meals that contain the appropriate nutritional balance.
19 Summary (5 of 5) • Know your limits, listen to your body, and use rehabilitation facilities. • Safety begins and ends with you.