17 Objectives (1 of 2) • Describe the procedure for making an appropriate risk-benefit analysis. • Describe the procedures for the personnel accountability system. • Describe the role of the rapid intervention crew (RIC).
17 Objectives (2 of 2) • Define self-rescue techniques. • Describe how to conserve SCBA air supply. • Describe the critical incident stress management process.
17 Introduction • Fire fighter survival is the primary objective. • Survival depends on making the right decisions and performing the right actions. • Learn to recognize dangerous situations and to take appropriate actions.
17 Risk-Benefit Analysis (1 of 7) • Approach to emergency operations can limit the risk of fire fighter deaths and injuries. • Based upon comparing the positive results that can be achieved with the probability and severity of potential negative consequences
17 Risk-Benefit Analysis (2 of 7) • Practiced at several different levels • IC • Responsible for the high-level risk-benefit analysis • Assesses the risks and benefits before committing crews to an interior attack • Reassess the risks and benefits during the operation
17 Risk-Benefit Analysis (3 of 7) • Company officer • Processes risk and benefits to ensure the safety of a group of fire fighters • Involved in continuous risk analysis • Fire fighter • Makes a risk-benefit analysis from his or her perspective
17 Risk-Benefit Analysis (4 of 7) • Philosophy • We will not risk our lives at all for persons or property that are already lost. • We will accept a limited level risk, under measured and controlled conditions, to save property of value. • We will accept a higher level of risk only where there is a reasonable and realistic possibility of saving lives.
17 Risk-Benefit Analysis (5 of 7) • Do not risk fire fighters’ lives by entering a burning building if: • Unoccupied • Occupants could not survive • No property of value can be saved • Property has no value
17 Risk-Benefit Analysis (6 of 7) • If there is a reasonable possibility that property can be saved, but no lives are at stake, fire fighters can be committed to an interior attack. • Combination of PPE, training, and SOPs designed to allow fire fighters to work safely • No property is worth the life of a fire fighter.
17 Risk-Benefit Analysis (7 of 7) • Only permissible to risk fire fighter’s life when there is a real possibility of saving a life • Actions must be conducted in as safe a manner as possible. • Determination that risk is acceptable does not justify taking unsafe actions.
17 Hazard Indicators (1 of 4) • Fire fighters must be capable of working safely in a hazardous environment. • Danger of firefighting should never be thought of as routine. • Learn to routinely follow safe SOPs.
17 Hazard Indicators (2 of 4) • Recognize many different types of hazards and act appropriately. • Example of a common hazard is the presence of smoke inside a structure. • Proper response to the hazard is to wear SCBA. • Obvious hazard is recognized and a standard solution is applied.
17 Hazard Indicators (3 of 4) • Many hazards easy to recognize • Smoke • Other hazards require further study and experience. • Building construction • Weather conditions • Occupancy
17 Hazard Indicators (4 of 4) • Building construction • Predict fire behavior and collapse potential • Weather conditions • Can create hazards • Occupancy • A warning placard
17 Safe Operating Procedures • Define how operations are conducted. • Many based on fire fighter health and safety • Consistently follow safe operating procedures. • Must be learned and practiced • When under pressure, people will revert to habits.
17 Team Integrity (1 of 2) • Teamwork is essential. • Standard team is a company. • Standard company is 3-5 fire fighters and a company officer.
17 Team Integrity (2 of 2) • Team integrity means that a company arrives at a fire together, works together, and leaves together. • Always use a buddy system. • Follow the two-in/two-out rule.
17 Personnel Accountability System(1 of 3) • Systematic method to track everyone’s location and function • Responsibility of the IC • Track from arrival to release • Track each member of a company
17 Personnel Accountability System (2 of 3) • Can take many forms • Written roster or computer database • List of assigned company members is carried on each piece of apparatus. • Tags for all members are affixed to a special board called a passport carried in the cab.
17 Personnel Accountability System (3 of 3) • Passport given to command post or at point of entry • Picked up upon exiting
17 Personnel Accountability Report • Personnel accountability report (PAR) • Roll call taken by each supervisor • Company officer verifies presence of members. • Occurs every 10 minutes, tactical benchmarks, and after unusual events • Any time a fire fighter cannot be accounted for, he or she is considered missing until proven otherwise.
17 Emergency Communication(1 of 2) • Breakdown is a major cause of deaths and injuries to fire fighters. • Ensure message is stated clearly. • Repeat message back as confirmation.
17 Emergency Communication (2 of 2) • Reserved phrases, sounds, and signals for emergency messages should be a part of your department’s SOPs. • Phrases should be known and practiced by everyone in the department. • In many areas, these procedures are coordinated regionally.
17 Mayday • Used if a fire fighter is in danger • A fire fighter can call Mayday to request help. • Another fire fighter can use to report team member missing or in trouble. • Mayday takes precedence over all other radio communications.
17 Emergency Traffic • Used to indicate imminent fire ground hazard • Potential explosion or structural collapse • Used to order fire fighters to immediately withdraw from interior • Takes precedence over all other radio communications • Except Mayday
17 Special Tones • Communications centers can emit a special tone over the radio to alert all members. • Information is repeated to be certain it is heard correctly by all. • All imminent hazards and emergency instructions should capture the attention of everyone at the incident scene.
17 Initiating a Mayday (1 of 2) • Analysis shows that fire fighters often wait until it’s too late to call for help. • Failure to act promptly can be fatal in many situations. • Do not hesitate to call for help when you think you need it.
17 Initiating a Mayday (2 of 2) • Transmit Mayday-Mayday-Mayday over radio. • Clearly state: • Name • Nature of problem • Location • Activate PASS. • Activate emergency button on radio
17 Rapid Intervention Crew (1 of 3) • Established solely to rescue fire fighters • Stands by fully dressed and equipped • An extension of the two-in/two-out rule • Minimum of two fire fighters is required to establish an entry team. • Minimum of two additional fire fighters is required to remain outside the hazardous area.
17 Rapid Intervention Crew (2 of 3) • Outside fire fighters can perform other duties. • Must be ready to assist at all times • The two fire fighters who remain outside are the first stage of RIC. • The dedicated RIC team is the second stage.
17 Rapid Intervention Crew (3 of 3) • RIC should be in place when fire fighters are operating in IDLH conditions. • IC should immediately deploy the RIC to any situation where a fire fighter needs immediate assistance. • Lost or missing fire fighter • Injured fire fighter who has to be removed from a hazardous location • A trapped fire fighter
17 Fire Fighter Survival Procedures • Your personal safety could depend on learning, practicing, and consistently following fire fighter survival procedures.
17 Maintaining Orientation (1 of 3) • Very easy to become disoriented in a dark, smoke-filled building • Extremely important to stay oriented • If you get lost, you could run out of air.
17 Maintaining Orientation (2 of 3) • Several methods can be used to stay oriented inside a smoke-filled building. • Before entering, look at building from the outside to get an idea of the size, shape, arrangement, and number of stories. • After entering, follow walls and pay attention to where you go. • Always stay in contact with a hose line.
17 Maintaining Orientation (3 of 3) • Team integrity is an important factor in maintaining orientation. • Everyone works together to stay oriented. • When team members cannot see each other, stay in direct physical contact or within verbal contact.
17 Guideline • A rope attached to an object on the exterior or a known fixed location • Used for orientation when inside a structure • Stretched out as a crew enters the structure • Guideline technique requires intense practice.
17 Self-Rescue (1 of 5) • Immediately call for assistance. • Do not wait. • Initiate the process as soon as you think you are in trouble.
17 Self-Rescue (2 of 5) • If you are simply separated from your crew: • Follow a hose line back to an open doorway. • Descend a ladder. • Climb out through a ground floor window. • Notify IC that you are safe.
17 Self-Rescue (3 of 5) • There are complicated techniques that fire fighters can use to escape from dangerous predicaments. • Include some standard methods: • Breaching a wall • Using a rescue line and harness to rappel down to the ground
17 Self-Rescue (4 of 5) • Disentanglement • Important skill that needs to be learned and practiced • Many fire fighters carry small tools to cut through wires or small cables. • Can be very difficult if visibility does not allow the entangling material to be seen and identified
17 Self-Rescue (5 of 5) • Some self-rescue methods involve using tools and equipment in manners for which they were not designed. • These are considered last resort methods. • Should only be taught by instructors and practiced with strict safety measures in place • Very controversial
17 Safe Havens (1 of 3) • Temporary location that provides refuge while awaiting rescue or finding a method of self-rescue • Safety is relative—less dangerous than the alternative • Important when situations become critical • Know where to look for and how to recognize one.
17 Safe Havens (2 of 3) • A room with a door and a window could be a safe haven. • Safe haven provides time for rescue team to reach fire fighters. • A roof or floor collapse often leaves a void adjacent to an exterior wall. • Maintaining team integrity is important.
17 Safe Havens (3 of 3) • These activities require good instruction and practice. • Follow your department’s operating guidelines.
17 Air Management (1 of 5) • Air equals time. • Time in a hazardous atmosphere must include entry and exit time. • Time rating on an SCBA is for low exertion. • Often a 30-minute supply is used in 10-12 minutes.
17 Air Management (2 of 5) • Rate of consumption varies among fire fighters. • Also depends on activities being performed • Air management is a team effort as well as an individual effort. • Team member who uses the air supply most rapidly determines the working time for the team.
17 Air Management (3 of 5) • Determine your personal air usage rate by participating in an SCBA consumption exercise . • Knowing team members’ physical conditions and workload can help keep them safe. • Team member could use up his of her air supply much faster without realizing it.
17 Air Management (4 of 5) • Be aware of the SCBA limitations. • Do not enter a hazardous area unless your air cylinder is full. • Know your air supply. • Do not wait until the low-pressure alarm sounds to start thinking about leaving the hazardous area.
17 Air Management (5 of 5) • Emergency situations can occur. • SCBA can malfunction. • Fire fighters can be trapped. • Remain calm. • Know how to use all of the SCBA emergency features.