Fire Fighter IFire Control-Lesson One There is to be a designated safety officer at all fire control practical's. 1. Discuss the need for size-up procedures on vehicle emergencies. a) Proper types of barrier devices i) Fire line tape ii)Traffic cones iii)Utility rope
Fire Fighter IIBuilding ConstructionLesson Three TERMINAL OBJECTIVE The Firefighter II candidate shall correctly define in writing the different material used in lightweight construction as well as identify lightweight construction components, describe their reaction to fire and truss locations found in structures. ENABLING OBJECTIVES • The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, what is considered lightweight construction and the materials used in the components of lightweight construction. • The Firefighter II candidate shall describe in writing, the reaction of lightweight structural components to fire. • The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, the locations where trusses can be found in structures.
Fire Fighter IIBuilding ConstructionLesson Three ENABLING OBJECTIVE#1 The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, what is considered lightweight construction and the materials used in the components of lightweight construction. • Define the term “Truss construction.” • Discuss “surface to mass ratio.” • Discuss “Open web steel joists.” • Discuss “Wood trusses.” • Point out the different types of trusses. • Label the different parts of a truss.
Fire Fighter IIBuilding ConstructionLesson Three • Point out the difference between a steel truss and a wood truss. • Discuss the function of gusset plates to wooden trusses. • Define the term “Engineered wood structural member.” • Define the term “Plywood.” • Define the term “Oriented Strand Board.” • Discuss compression and tension forces as it relates to truss construction.
Fire Fighter IIBuilding ConstructionLesson Three ENABLING OBJECTIVE#2 The Firefighter II candidate shall describe in writing, the reaction of lightweight structural components to fire. • Discuss the statement – “Our trusses are engineered.” • Discuss hazards associated with a “truss void.” • Discuss the fire characteristics of steel trusses. • Discuss the fire characteristics of wood trusses. • Discuss the fire characteristics of wooden I beams.
Fire Fighter IIBuilding ConstructionLesson Three ENABLING OBJECTIVE# 3 • The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, the locations where trusses can be found in structures. • Discuss floor trusses and the problems associated with them. • Discuss roof trusses and the problems associated with them.
Fire Fighter IIFire BehaviorLesson Two ENABLING OBJECTIVE #3 The Fire Fighter II candidate shall correctly describe in writing why recognizing observations in reading smoke and the warning signs of hostile fire events is important. 1. Explain why reading smoke is important to evaluating the fires position within a building. 2. Explain how evaluating the volume of smoke assists in the understanding of the amount of fuel that is off-gassing in a given space. 3. Explain that the velocity of smoke is an indicator of pressure. 4. Describe the two things that can create smoke pressure. a. Heat b. Restricting the volume of smoke within a container
Fire Fighter IIFire BehaviorLesson Two 5. Explain how smoke thickens. 6. Discuss the fact that the greater the smoke density, the more likely a hostile fire event can occur. 7. Explain that the color of smoke will only indicate the type of burning material in a single-fuel fire. • Point out that smoke can tell the Fire Fighter which stage of burning is taking place. APPLICATION Divide the class up into suitable size work groups 3-5 candidates. Show them pictures of different fire scenarios and have them evaluate the smoke conditions. Assist them in recognizing the volume, velocity, density, and color of smoke for each picture.
To determine “HOW MUCH” fire Why “Read” Smoke?
To help find the LOCATION of the fire Why “Read” Smoke?
Why “Read”Smoke? To help predict COLLAPSE potential
Why “Read” Smoke? To help PRIORITIZE Strategies & Tactics
Why “Read” Smoke? To PROTECTFirefighters from a “HOSTILE FIRE EVENT” Flashover Back Draft Smoke Explosion Auto Ignition Rapid Fire Spread
The “ADVANCED” Basics What is “Smoke”? Aerosols Gases Particles
Solid Particles Carbon Dust Other fibers
Aerosols Hydrocarbons Oil Tar
Fire Gases Carbon Monoxide Hydrogen Cyanide Acrolein Hydrogen Sulfide Benzene
Smoke is FUEL!!! Additional Products of Combustion: Water Vapor Unburned Particles Carbon Dioxide
Flashpoint and Auto IgnitionTemperatures Carbon Monoxide - 1292 F Hydrogen Cyanide 0 F 538 F Acrolein -15 F 428 F Hydrogen Sulfide - 500 F Benzene 12 F 928 F
Hydrogen Cyanide Hydrogen Cyanide is more prevalent now than ever before due to the increased use of synthetics. It attacks our bodies through Oral inhalation as well as Occular and Dermal absorption. It is more lethal than CO and is more difficult to test for toxicity levels. It is suspected of contibuting to the many of the FF Fatalities in the past originally thought to CO induced.
LAYERS Fuel – UEL and LEL Reaction- Oxygen-Fuel effect Ceiling layer- • High fuel/Low Oxygen Floor Layer- • High Oxygen/Low Fuel They meet at the reaction layer Oxygen – Deficient or Enriched
The “ADVANCED” Basics What relationship does mass & density have on fuels? Fuels are Synthetic now Fuels have LESS MASS – they off-gas quicker!
Building Construction Factors Construction Contents Size Ventilation Fire protection systems
Construction Type Insulation Condition Heat Flux
Lightweight Construction • I-Joist
Lightweight Construction • Glu-Lam • Finger-Joint
Lightweight Construction • Panels
Lightweight Construction • Wood Truss
How Wood Burns • As the surface temperature of wood increases due to fire exposure, flammable vapors are produced and a char layer (burnt wood) is formed on the external surfaces. • In the presence of fire, these flammable vapors ignite and contribute to the fire. • As the char layer gets thicker, it insulates the remaining unburned wood and slows the rate of vapor production, thereby slowing the charring process
Links American Forest & Paper Association- http://www.woodaware.info/index.html Southern Building Components Association http://www.sbcindustry.com/configurations.php
Contents Type of fuel load Size / Amount
Construction and Contents Homeowners “padding” their homes: Plusher carpet Elaborate curtain & drapes More / heavier furniture Comfort accessories “Bed, Bath & Beyond”
Increasing use of synthetic materials Tighter construction Better insulation Modern construction materials Double/triple pane EE windows
Size Area Height Configuration
Ventilation Volume Distance Type Influences fire spread
Fire Protection Systems HVAC Sprinklers Standpipes
“Modern” Structure Fire Ceiling temps have increased from 1300 to 1600 degrees BTU production > 18,000 (more than doubled)
What Does this Mean For Us? Doesn’t necessarily change our tactics… Does accelerate our tactical time frame at an incident...
The “ADVANCED” Basics How does “flammable range” factor in?
Flammable Range & the Three Fires Too Rich . . . Too Lean . . . Just Right . . .
The “ADVANCED” Basics To Read Smoke – you must be able to: Determine the stage of burning (early, growing, late) Tell if the Fire is in Thermal Balance (smoke up and out, fresh air in). Find out if the “box” is absorbing heat or not (Linear vs. Turbulent Smoke Flow)
“ HOSTILE ”Fire Events Flashover Back draft Smoke Explosion Rapid Fire Spread Auto Ignition
FLASHOVER Fuel mass/box is heat saturated Reflective radiant heat intensifies Simultaneous ignition of fuels Warning Signs: Turbulent smoke, Rollover, Auto-Ignition Flashover of one box means what?
Flashover Transition or event that occurs between the incipient and fully developed phases of fire All surfaces that are exposed ignite at once
BACKDRAFT Introduction of oxygen to an environment that is: Heated past fuel ignition temps Usually confined or restricted Pressurized with gases Capable of sustained burning Warning Signs: Ugly Yellow/grey smoke, Smoke leaving cracks under pressure, black-stained windows Note: Puffing is NOT a good warning sign( a pressurized container must vent before it can suck!)