Bioremediation Bioremediation • The use of biological agents, such as bacteria or plants, to remove or neutralize contaminants, as in polluted soil or water. • Any processes that uses microorganisms or their enzymes to natural environment altered by contaminants to its original condition.
..Bioremediation • Each year, industrial residues, domestic waste and agricultural run-offs contaminate water, soil and air. • The U.S. spends millions of dollars to clean contaminants, prevent further pollution, and restore the site to its natural vegetative state.
..Bioremediation • Bioremediation is used to clean up environmental hazards cause by industrial toxic waste. CO2 N2 CO2 N2 CO2 CO2 N2
…Bioremediation • The contaminants are metabolized and transformed into harmless organic and inorganic molecules: • nitrogen, carbon dioxide and salts.
Types of Bioremediation In-Situ & Ex-Situ
In-Situ Bioremediation • In-situ bioremediation- clean up of chemicals at the contaminated site • Ex-situbioremediation- removal of chemicals from the contaminated site to another location for treatment
….In Situ Bioremediation • The Exxon Valdez oil spilloccurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on March 24, 1989. • The Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef and spilled 260,000 to 750,000 barrels (41,000 to 119,000 m3) of crude oil. • It is considered to be one of the most devastating human-caused environmental disasters.
..In-Situ Bioremediation • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), used Pseudomonasdeveloped by AnandaChakrabarty to degrade components in crude oil. Exxon Valdez oil Spill
..In Situ Bioremediation • The Deepwater Horizon oil spill ( BP oil spill, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, the BP oil disaster or the Macondo blowout), an oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico which flowed for three months in 2010. • It is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. • Scientist believes that that natural bacteria will slowly degrade the toxic waste. • When the influx of oil from the Deepwater Horizon leak began, it is likely bacteria began consuming and reproducing rapidly, breaking down oil into byproducts such as carbon dioxide, water and other biomass.
..In Situ- NEWS & VIEWS • Crude Oil Spill, Bemidji, Minnesota • Exxon Oil spill, 1989 • Pesticides, San Francisco, Bay Estuary • Oil release by Kuwait, 1991
Ex-Situ Bioremediation • Ex-Situ bioremediation requires that the contaminated soil or water be physically removed before treatment.
..Ex Situ Bioremediation • Removal of contaminants at different location taken from the contaminated site • More expensive and damaging to the area • More difficult compare to In-situ bioremediation • Examples: Sewage Treatment
Phytoremediation • A new and growing type of bioremediation is phytoremediation. • Phytoremediation is the depolluting of contaminated soil, water or air using plants.
….Phytoremediation-natures way • It is use of plants to clean up potentially damaging spills. • The plants work with soil organisms to transform contaminants, such as heavy metals and toxic organic compounds, into harmless or valuable forms.
Phytoremediation-natures way Examples: Cottonwood, poplar trees and Alpine pennycress have been used extensively to leach heavy metals. • Used by: • United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) • Department of Energy (DoE) • EPA Alpine pennycress is used by the USDA to remove heavy metals such as zinc and cadmium.
…Phytoremediation • Phytoremediation’s most publicize appearance came during the Chernobyl nuclear waste cleanup in the Ukraine. • Sunflower plants were planted to remove and degrade radioactive cesium and strontium. • http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5jIj3ZyLIOY-pLjO7m6Z_Llr7x1nQ?docId=29c8cbbf334a420a9584c45a2f05298c
.. …Phytoremediation: GM crop • Arabidopsisthaliana, a plant in the mustard family, has two bacterial genes added to its genome in order for the plant to remove arsenic from the soil. • The first gene converts the arsenic to a form the plant can suck up and the second allows the plant to detoxify heavy metals and accumulate them in its leaves.
Microbes-natures way • Polaromonasnaphthalenivorans, breaks down naphthalene in coal tar. Found in Upstate New York and identified by the use of DNA finger printing. • Geobactersulfurreducens, part of a family of bacterium that degrade metals. G. sulfurreducens degrades uranium while G. metallireducens degrades both uranium and plutonium. • G. metallireducenshas genes that allow it to grow flagella and “sniff out” metals if none are available in its location.
…Microbes: GM • Thermusbrockianus,produces a protein that breaks down hydrogen peroxide. • This protein can be added directly to industrial waste water to treat the water before it is released. • Hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains were transformed with an E. colipro Uoperon which improved the ability to grow under hyper-saline conditions allowing improved bioremediation in marine environments.
Techniques used for Bioremediation • Monitored Natural way: use of pants & microbes) • Bioaugmentation: is the introduction of a group of natural microbial strains or a genetically engineered variant to treat contaminated soil or water.
..Techniques used for Bioremediation: Biostimulation • Biostimulation- involves the modification of the environment to stimulate existing bacteria capable of bioremediation. • This can be done by addition of various forms of rate limiting nutrients and electron acceptors such as phosphorus, nitrogen, oxygen, or carbon
..Techniques used for Bioremediation • Biobarriers: Acid rock drainage from hard rock mine lands is a major environmental problem that impacts both ground- and surface water throughout the Western US. • Naturally occurring aerobic and facultative bacteria which utilize dissolved oxygen in the infiltrating water and therefore maintain the reducing conditions which are necessary for pyrite(an iron sulfide) and other metal sulfides to remain bound in mineral form in water.
..Techniques used for Bioremediation • Mycoremediation: Fungal Remediation
References • William J., and Michael A. Pallandino. Introduction to Biotechnology. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc., 20007 • “Biobarriers and Bioremediation Collection.” Montana State University Center for Biofilm Engineering. 9 Apr. 2009, <http://www.erc.montana.edu/Res-Lib99-SW/Image_Library/Bioremediation/default.htm> • “Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides.” 2nd Ed. Berkley Lab. 11 Apr. 2009. <http://esd.lbl.gov/research/projects/ersp/generalinfo/primers_guides/03_NABIR_primer.pdf> • “Recent Developments for In Situ Treatment of Metal Contaminated Soils.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 9 Apr. 2009. <http://www.epa.gov/swertio1/download/remed/metals2.pdf> • “Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide.” Ver. 4.0. Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable. 9 Apr. 2009 <http://www.frtr.gov/matrix2/top_page.html> • Singh, Harbhajan. Mycoremediation: Fungal Bioremediation. United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell, 2006 • “Wet Soil Mixing.” Keller Ground Engineering. 10 Apr. 2009. <http://www.keller-ge.co.uk/engineering/products/product-details/WetSoilMixing.html?ContentID=8>
“Phytoremediation: Using Plants To Clean Up Soils.” June 2000. United States Department of Agriculture. 18 Oct. 2007. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jun00/soil0600.htm • “Sewage Treatment.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 19 Oct. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sewage_treatment • Kris Traver, Niana Islam And Edwin Estime 2007 Biotech group for power point creativity editing. • Center for Disease Control and Prevention. “Emergency Preparedness and Response: Bioterrorism” <http://www.bt.cdc.gov/bioterrorism/overview.asp>2007 • http://www.hindustantimes.com/Small-wonders/Article1-623814.aspx http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1945110/the_murky_picture_beneath_the_surface/