INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Qualitative research – analysis of open-ended questions or naturalistic which involves the researcher going to a natural setting where the phenomenon being studied is taking place. • Includes grounded theory, case study, ethnography, and phenomenology. • All involve some means of doing content analysis on text.
Field studies • Describing and exploring the phenomenon in a naturalistic setting • Examine in an in-depth manner, behaviors, practices and beliefs • It is intensive rather than extensive E.g., studying Islam- related health beliefs
A. Ethnography • Used by anthropologist to focus on group of people • Its learning about culture to understand a specific group of people way of life
B. Phenomenology • Thinking what the experience of people are • The phenomenologic ask, what is the essence of the experience? • Its what the people think about the phenomenon and how they interpret it. • Bracketing vs. intuiting • E., what does quality of life means to people at the age of 60 – 80 years of age
C. Ethnomethodology • How do people make sense of their daily life experience and how they interpret their social worlds
Historical Studies • Systematic collection and critical evaluation of information related to the past • Historical vs. Literature review • E.g., gender effect on the development of the profession of nursing
Case Studies • In-depth investigation of individual, group or situation • It understanding why is this happening • It could be a way to introduce the main problem in more comprehensive systematic way
ISSUES IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Ethics – protection of human subjects. • Naturalistic setting – informed consent. • Emergent nature of design – ongoing negotiation of consent. • Researcher-participant interaction – may become therapeutic. • Researcher as instrument – “bracketing”.
ISSUES IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Credibility – truth of findings as judged by participants and others within the discipline. • Auditability – accountability as judged by the adequacy of information leading the reader from the research question and raw data through various steps of analysis to the interpretation of findings.
Fittingness – faithfulness to everyday reality of the participants described in enough detail so others in the discipline can evaluate importance for their own practice, research, and theory development.
Issue in Qual. Research • Triangulation – the expansion of research methods in a single study or multiple studies to enhance diversity, enrich understanding, and accomplish specific goals. • Computer management of qualitative data – three types include code and retrieve, theory builders, and conceptual network builders.