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  1. Ms. SolesSocial Studies Lesson 26 South America: PERU

  2. Where in the world is Peru?

  3. Flag of Peru

  4. What will we learn about Peru? • Physical Characteristics • History • Government • Economy • People/Culture • Plants/Animals

  5. Facts About Peru • Capital City: Lima (7,605,742 pop.) (8,472,935 metro) • Peru Population: 29,461,933 (2010 est.) Currency: Peru Nuevo Sol (PEN)

  6. Ethnicity: Amerindian 45%, Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3% • GDP per capita: $9,200 (2010 est)

  7. Language: Spanish 84.1% (official), Quechua 13% (official), Aymara 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages 0.7% (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages), other • Largest Cities: (by population) Lima, Arequipa, Callao, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Iquitos, Huancayo, Piura, Chimbote, Cuzco

  8. Name: The name Peru come from the word Biru. Biru was the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. The Spanish adopted the name in 1529. • National Day: July 28 • Religion: Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified or none 2.9%

  9. Physical Characteristics

  10. The rugged Andes Mountains cover almost 40% of Peru. Hundreds of snowcapped peaks jut skyward here, with many exceeding 20,000 ft.

  11. Mountain lagoon in Peru

  12. Fronting the Andes - from Ecuador to Chile - there's an arid and rocky narrow coastline; in essence, it's a sandy mountainous desert dissected by dozens of small rivers that flow into the Pacific. 

  13. In the east, the Andean Highlands slope gently down into the rivers and jungles of the Amazon; a heavily forested, relatively flat area, that stretches to its borders with Brazil and Chile.

  14. The lowest part of Peru is in the far northeast; here the fertile land and jungles are irrigated by tributaries of the massive Amazon River.  • Note that Peru shares control of Lake Titicaca with Bolivia, the world's highest navigable lake.    

  15. History in a Timeline1500’s – 1800’s • (1523-33) Francisco Pizarro defeated Incas • (1535) Francisco Pizarro established Lima, made Lima capital of Viceroyalty of Peru • (1780) Mestizos, led by Tupac Amaru II, revolted against Spanish rule

  16. Let’s back up to Pre-Columbian Inca civilization and visit famous ruins!

  17. (1821) General Jose de San Martin captured Lima from Spain; proclaimed Peru independent • (1824) Peru defeated Spain, became last colony in Latin America to gain its independence • (1836-39) Peru joined Bolivian confederation

  18. (1849-74) 100,000 Chinese workers arrived in Peru as menial laborers • (1866) Peru won brief war with Spain • (1879-83) Chile defeated Peru, Bolivia during the Pacific war, Peru lost province of Tacna • (1884) Treaty of Ancon gave Peruvian province of Tarapaca

  19. 1900’s • (1924) Victor Raul Haya de la Torre set up nationalist American Revolutionary Popular Alliance (APRA) while exiled in Mexico • (1929) Chile returned Tacna to Peru • (1941) Brief border war with Ecuador; under 1942 Rio Protocol, Ecuador ceded tdisputed territory to Peru

  20. (1945) Civilian government led by center-left APRA assumed power after free elections • (1948) Military coup installed General Manuel A. Odria as president • (1963) Peru returned to civilian rule; Fernando Belaunde Terry president

  21. (1968) General Juan Velasco Alvardo seized power in military coup • (1975) Velasco ousted in coup led by General Quechua; language of Inca made official language along with Spanish • (1980) Peru returned to civilian rule with Fernando Belaunde as president

  22. (1981) Peru fought border war with Ecuador over Cordillera del Condor • (1982) Debt crisis; military crackdown on guerrillas, drug traffickers escalated deaths and “disappearances”

  23. (1985) APRA candidate Alan Garcia Perez won presidential election; campaign started to remove military, police “old guard” • (1987) New liberated movement led by Mario Vargas Llosa blocked plans to nationalize banks as Peru faced bankruptcy • (1988) Peru sought help from International Monetary Fund

  24. 1900’s • (1990) Alberto Fujimori defeated Mario Vargas Llosa for president; Fujimori instituted severe austerity measures, privatization programs • (1992) Fujimori dissolved congress • (1993) New constitution adopted, allowed Fujimori to seek re-election

  25. (1995) Fujimori re-elected to second term • (1996) Tupac Amaru guerrillas seized hostages at Japanese Ambassador’s residence • (1997) Special Forces freed hostages held at Japanese ambassador’s residence; El Nino caused severe drought • (1998) Border agreement with Ecuador established

  26. 2000’s • (2000) Intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos caught on video, tried to bribe opposition politician; President Fujimori resigned, congress declared him “morally unfit” to govern; head of congress Valentin Paniagua sworn in as interim president

  27. (2001) Alejandro Toledo Peru’s elected first president of native Indian origin; fireworks explosion in downtown Lima ignited a horrific fire, killed 290 people

  28. (2002) Alberto Fujimori accused of treason; former intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos sentenced nine years in prison for corruption • (2003) Congress requested Fujimori extradition from Japan, issued new charges of arms trafficking, torture, student disappearances

  29. (2004) Vladimiro Montesinos sentenced to 15 years for corruption, embezzlement, conspiracy; inauguration of major gas pipeline connected jungle gas field with Lima

  30. (2005) President Toledo found guilty of electoral fraud; government compensated guerrilla war victims; former president Fujimori arrested in Chile; U.S. and Peru reached a free trade agreement

  31. (2006) Alan Garcia won presidency • (2007) Parliament granted President Garcia emergency powers - allowed him to rule on issues related to drug trafficking and organized crime

  32. (2008) President Garcia appointed Yehude Simon, a leftist regional governor from outside the ruling party, new prime minister

  33. (2009) Security forces, indigenous people protested against land ownership laws opening up oil and gas resources to foreign companies; Prime Minister Yehude Simon resigned in response to violence;

  34. Javier Velasquez Quesquen appointed new prime minister; ties with Chile strained by Chilean military exercise staged close to the disputed borders; Peruvian air force officer accused of spying for the Chilean military

  35. 2011 Government Since the end of the Fujimori regime, Peru has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth; since 2006 the president is Alan García.30 In 2011, Ollanta Humala was elected the new president of Peru; he will assume office on July 28, 2011.

  36. Peru’s Economy Fishing: Peru is an international leader in fishing, producing nearly 10 percent of the world's fish catch. Mining: Peru ranks fifth worldwide in gold production (first in Latin America), second in copper, and is among the top 5 producers of lead and zinc.

  37. The most promising sector is textiles, metal mechanics, food industry and agricultural industry. Tourism has represented a new growth industry in Peru since the early 1990s.

  38. Peru's natural resources are copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, and natural gas.

  39. Peru is a country with many climates and geographical zones that make it a very important agricultural nation.

  40. Peru agricultural exports are highly appreciated and include artichokes, grapes, avocados, mangoes, peppers, sugarcane, organic coffee and premium-quality cotton.

  41. People and Culture Peru is a multiethnic country formed by the combination of different groups over five centuries. Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before Spanish Conquest in the 16th century.

  42. Afro-Peruvian association football athlete Jefferson Farfán Andean man from Pisac in traditional dress.

  43. Africans arrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and with indigenous peoples. After independence, there has been a gradual European immigration from England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.

  44. Chinese arrived in the 1850s as a replacement for slave workers and have since become a major influence in Peruvian society. Other immigrant groups include Arabs and Japanese.

  45. Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions, though it has also been influenced by various African, Asian, and European ethnic groups.

  46. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu.