el tiempo pasado n.
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El tiempo pasado

El tiempo pasado

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El tiempo pasado

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  1. El tiempo pasado The past tense

  2. Acabar de + [infinitive] is used to say that something has just occurred. It is used for the very recent past. • Note that acabar is in the present tense in this construction. • Acabode compraruna falda. • I just bought a skirt. • Acabasde irde compras. • You just went shopping.

  3. Acabar + de+ infinitive: Tell what the subjects “just did” in the recent past: Acabo de comer. Acabas de estudiar. Acaba de escribir. Acaba de trabajar. Acaba de llegar. Acabamos de volver. Acabáis de salir. Acaban de pagar. Acaban de ir. Acaban de llamar. Yo (comer) Tú (estudiar) Ud. (escribir) Él (trabajar) Ella (llegar) Nosotros (volver) Vosotros (salir) Uds. (pagar) Ellos (ir) Ellas (llamar)

  4. ANTE TODO • In order to talk about events in the past that did not just occur, Spanish uses two simple tenses: the preterite and the imperfect.

  5. The imperfect tense is used to express circumstances, descriptions, and uncountable actions in the past: • to describe in the past • The car was red. • to describe emotional or mental states in the past • I was (feeling) angry. • to state on-going (progressive) actions in the past • They were studying and I was playing. • to state uncountable, repeated actions in the past • I used to go to the beach every summer. • We frequently visited our grandparents.

  6. In contrast, the preterite tense is used to express actions or reactions completed in the past that can be counted, including one time implied and the summary of a series of completed actions.

  7. The preterite answers the questions: What happened or ocurred? It rained. (Completed, countable action.) It was fun. (Summary statement) What did the subject do? I left the house. (1x implied) She saw the movie three times. (Action countable times) How did the subject react? We got angry. (reaction)

  8. How does the preterite tense translate into English? In questions: ¿Qué compraste tú? = What did you buy? ¿Compraste tú una camisa? = Did you buy a shirt? In statements: Yo compré una camisa. = I bought a shirt. I did buy a shirt.

  9. Words commonly used with the past tense and often with preterite (The ones with * absolutely indicate preterite.) Ayer llegué a Santiago de Cuba. Anoche oí un ruido extraño. Yesterday I arrived in Santiago de Cuba. Last night I heard a strange noise.

  10. -ar verbs-er verbs-ir verbs comprar vender escribir SINGULAR FORMS yo comprévendíescribí tú comprastevendiste escribiste Ud. / él / ella compróvendióescribió PLURAL FORMS nosotros/as compramosvendimosescribimos vosotros/as comprasteisvendisteisescribisteis Uds. / ellos / ellas compraronvendieronescribieron Preterite of regular –ar, –er, and –irverbs

  11. ¡ATENCIÓN! • The yoand Ud. / él / ella forms of all three conjugations have written accents on the last syllable to show that it is stressed. • As the preceding chart shows, the endings for regular –er and –ir verbs are identical in the preterite.

  12. The –ar and –er verbs that have a stem change in the present tense are regular in the preterite. They do not have a stem change. (no boot changes for –ar/-er preterite) PRESENTPRETERITE cerrar (e:ie) La tienda cierra a las seis. La tienda cerró a las seis. volver (o:ue) Carlitos vuelve tarde. Carlitos volvió tarde. jugar (u:ue) Él juega al fútbol. Él jugó al fútbol.

  13. Note that the nosotros/as forms of regular –ar and –ir verbs in the preterite are identical to the present tense forms. Context will help you determine which tense is being used. En invierno compramos la ropa en la tienda de la universidad. In the winter, we buy clothing at the university store. Anoche compramos unos zapatos de tenis y unas sandalias. Last night we bought a pair of tennis shoes and a pair of sandals.

  14. Verbs that end in –car, –gar, and –zarhave a spelling change in the first person singular (yo form only) in the preterite. buscarbusc- qu- yo busqué llegar lleg- gu- yo llegué empezar empez- c- yo empecé • Except for the yo form, all other forms of –car, –gar, and –zar verbs are regular in the preterite.

  15. Three other verbs — creer, leer, and oír— have spelling changes in the preterite. • Thei of the verb endings of creer, leer, and oír carries anaccent in the yo, tú, nosotros/as, and vosotros/as forms, and changes toyin the Ud. / él / ella and Uds. / ellos / ellas forms. creer  cre-  creí, creíste, creyó, creímos, creísteis, creyeron leer  le-  leí, leíste, leyó, leímos, leísteis, leyeron oír  o-  oí, oíste, oyó, oímos, oísteis, oyeron • Ver is regular in the preterite, but none of its forms has an accent. ver  vi, viste, vio, vimos, visteis, vieron

  16. ¡INTÉNTALO!Provide the appropriate preterite forms of the verbs. celebrar • Elena _____. celebró 2. Yo _____. celebré 3. Los chicos _____. celebraron 4. Emilio y yo _____. celebramos 5. Tú _____. celebraste

  17. comer • Los niños _____. comieron 2. Tú _____. comiste 3. Usted _____. comió 4. Nosotros _____. comimos • Yo _____. comí

  18. salir • Tú y yo _____. salimos 2. Ella _____. salió 3. Pablo y Elena _____. salieron 4. Nosotros _____. salimos 5. Yo _____. salí

  19. comenzar • 1. Ustedes _____. comenzaron • 2. Nosotros _____. comenzamos • 3. Yo _____. comencé • 4. Marcos _____. comenzó • 5. Tú _____. comenzaste