Verbs EG: Unit 2, Lessons 7-11
SSWBAT: • Provide a clear, meaning-based description of action verbs that can be useful to students even if it is incomplete.
Action verb description • Action verbs represent actions/ behaviors: run, think, call, write, listen, sit, stand, sweat, sing, play • They indicate what someone or something is doing
SSWBAT: • Provide a clear, meaning-based description of linking verbs that can be useful to students even if it is incomplete.
Linking verb description • Linking verbs indicate a state of existence (being) or a sensory perception: be, feel, smell, sound, They link their subject with a (1) renaming of or (2) description of itself.
Linking verbs + renaming subject • The LV be can be followed by a noun phrase (predicate nominative) that renames or tells about the LV’s subject. • Monica is an accountant. • Juan became a physician.
Linking verbs + renaming subject • If a linking verb is followed by a noun it must rename the verb’s subject. • You are the best student in this class! • Try resemble. (Book has it as a linking verb, p. 27, but a linguist would disagree.)
Linking verbs + describing subject • Sense-based LVs & seem, turn (turn gray, turn cold), be,became, etc.can precede an adjective (predicate adjective) that describes the LV’s subject. • This shirt looks clean. • Julie is energetic.
Examples: • This woman is (= or describes) ____. • Julie’s cousin. • a senior. • capable. • 20 years old.
SSWBAT: • Explain & illustrate what types of verbs belong to the linking verb set • Link to renaming: be, become, remain, stay (Jake ___ an accountant.) • Link to description: sensory words, got, become, seem, grew, appear, be (Jake ___ happy.)
SSWBAT: • Provide 2 phrase frames that can be used to test if a word is a verb. • should _____ • want to ______
Try the phrase frames • Run, walk, think, talk, read, play. touch • Be, feel, seem, remain, resemble, look • Beautiful, awkwardly, toward, the, only
SSWBAT: • Name at least 3 characteristic behaviors of verbs.
Characteristic verb behaviors • Can have a past tense • For regular verbs, use -ed ending • Studied, placed, saw, said, ran • Can take an -ing ending (present participle morpheme)
Characteristic verb behaviors • Can be made into a command: • Stay! Look! Run! Stop! *Seem (happy)! • Can be made negative: • Don’t stay! Don’t look! Don’t run! Don’t stop! You don’t seem happy.
SSWBAT: • Define and identify the base/infinitive form of a verb. • The verb that is not marked for tense or aspect. (No ending: -ed, -en, -ing)
Infinitive (base) V forms • Want to ______ (happy/sad) • Should _________ (a toad) • Both frames take the infinitive form. • *Should kissed a toad. • *You seeming pleased.
SSWBAT: • Identify the “most irregular verb” in English & chart its present & past tense forms • Be
Present tense forms of be am are are are is are
Past tense forms of be was were were were was were
SSWBAT: • Prove with example sentences that some verbs can be used either as action or linking verbs. • Try feel, taste, ____
Both action & linking verb • Julie felt the kitten brush against her leg. • Julie felt comfortable. • Jake tasted the chicken. • The chicken tasted great.
SSWBAT: • Name and illustrate the type of modifier that can follow a linking verb and the type of modifier that can follow an action verb.
SSWBAT: • Contrast what the modifiers addressed in the previous items modify/describe.
Modifiers/descriptors after LVs • Finish this sentence: You look _____. • tired, smart, happy, mature, trustworthy • Adjectives--describe LV’s subject.
Modifiers/descriptors after AVs • Finish this sentence: You speak _____. • Fast, passionately, eloquently, well • Adverbs--describe the AV (about the speaking, not you).
FYI: good (adj.) and well (adv.) • Does someone run good or well? • Does someone look good or well? • Does something tastegood or well? • Does someone taste good or well?
SSWBAT: • Describe and exemplify what transitive and intransitive verbs are. • Transitive verbs take an object. Intransitive verbs don’t.
Transitive and intransitive Vs • What’s an object? A noun phrase (NP) that the transitive verb is acting upon. • Direct objects answer the question “Whom?” or “What?”
Example (direct) objects • The boy kissed the girl. • Whom? • The boy threw a stick. • What?
Note: • Objects only follow action verbs. • Therefore, only action verbs are described as transitive or intransitive.
Transitive and intransitive • Jake is studying in the library. • Intransitive--“in the library” doesn’t answer “Whom?” or “What?” • Jake is studying Spanish. • Transitive--Spanish answers “What?”
SSWBAT: • Provide a sentence frame that can be used to determine a verb is transitive. • They ____ something/someone.
SSWBAT: • Provide a sentence frame that can be used to determine a verb is intransitive. • They ____. (No object)
Testing the frames. • Transitive: • Julie answered the question. • Intransitive: • Julie answered correctly.
Testing the frames. • Transitive: • Julie asked Jake. • Intransitive: • Juilie asked first.
SSWBAT: • Prove some verbs can be both transitive and intransitive. • Which can be both? • Sleep, tell, worry, encourage • Answer: Worry, tell (Ex: Don’t tell on us.)
SSWBAT: • Provide a definition of a phrasal verb. • 2 parts: verb + particle • Pick up, take off, hand in, hand over • Similar meaning to a single verb • Clean, remove or leave, submit
SSWBAT: • State what part of speech phrasal verb particles can also be. • Prepositions: out the door, onthe floor, up the wall, offthe table, overthe river
SSWBAT: • Provide a test frame that indicates 2 (or 3) words are acting as a phrasal verb. • Fit the verb phrase frames: • Want to _____ (pick up, take off, hand in) • Should ____ (pick up, take off, hand in)
SSWBAT: • Provide a test that can prove two words are acting together as a phrasal verb. (Note: Verb must be transitive.) • Pick the living room up. • Take your coat off. • Hand your homework in.
Can’t put a preposition after its NP • Run up the bill. --> Run the bill up. • Run up the stairs. --> *Run the stairs up. • Look up the word. --> Look the word up. • Look up the stairs. ---> *Look the stairs up.
SSWBAT: • Identify a situation that usually requires the parts of the phrasal verb to be separated. • *Hand in it. Hand it in. -- Object is a pronoun. • *Call up her. Call her up.
SSWBAT: • Provide several examples that show that sometimes a particle cannot be separated from the first word in a phrasal verb even when the phrasal verb is transitive (and the object is a pronoun).
Immovable particles • Try look into, call on, step on, send for • I’ll look into that situation. • *I’ll look that situation into. • *I’ll look it into. • Please don’t call on me. • *Please don’t call me on.
Verb + 2 particles • FYI: There are some 3-word phrasal verbs. • Do away with = abolish, put up with = tolerate, stand up for = defend • These don’t allow particle movement.