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VERBS II PowerPoint Presentation

VERBS II

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VERBS II

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  1. VERBS II Conjugations

  2. The IV Conjugations • A conjugation is a group of verbs which are conjugated in the same regular way. • If you can conjugate one verb in a particular conjugation, you can conjugate any of them. • There are 4 major conjugations of verb in Latin, and we classify them according to their stem vowel.

  3. The stem vowel • You can tell what conjugation a verb is by looking at its second principle part, the present active infinitive. • All present active infinitives end in –re, the vowel before the –re is called the stem vowel.

  4. The first conjugation • Verbs in the first conjugation have “A” for the stem vowel. • Consider the verb, “STO, STARE– to stand.” • The second principle part, the present active infinitive, ends in “-ARE”, so “A” is its stem vowel. • Ergo, all the present tense forms of the verb have an “a” before the personal ending.

  5. STO I stand STAS You stand STAT He/She/It stands STAMUS We stand STATIS Y’all stand STANT They stand STARE to stand STA Stand! STATE Stand y’all! STO, STARE – TO STAND

  6. The second conjugation: • Verbs of the second conjugation have a long “e” as their stem vowel. • The second principle part, the present active infinitive, of a second conjugation verb ends in “-ĒRE.” The first principle part, the first person singular present active indicative, ends in “-EO.”

  7. DOCEO I teach. DOCES You teach. DOCET He / She / It teaches. DOCEMUS We teach. DOCETIS Y’all teach. DOCENT They teach. DOCĒRE To teach DOCĒ Teach! DOCĒTE Teach y’all! DOCEO, DOCĒRE – “to teach”

  8. The third conjugation: • Verbs of the third conjugation have a short “e” as their stem vowel. • The second principle part, the present active infinitive, of a third conjugation verb ends in “-ERE.” • Besides the long mark in the second principle part, second and third conjugation verbs can be distinguished by inspection of the first principle part, which only ends in “–eo” in the second conjugation. • The short “-e-” changes to “-i-” when we conjugate the verb.

  9. CURRO I run. CURRIS You run. CURRIT He / She / It runs. CURRIMUS We run. CURRITIS Y’all run. CURRUNT They run. CURRERE To run CURRE Run! CURRITE Run Y’all! CURRO, CURRERE – TO RUN

  10. The fourth conjugation: • Verbs of the fourth conjugation have “-i-” as their stem vowel. • The second principle part, the present active infinitive, of verbs of the fourth conjugation ends in “-ire.” • Likewise, the first principle part, the first person singular present active indicative, ends in “-io.”

  11. SENTIO I feel. SENTIS You feel. SENTIT He / She / It feels. SENTIMUS We feel. SENTITIS Y’all feel. SENTIUNT They feel. SENTIRE to feel SENTI Perceive! SENTITE Perceive y’all! Sentio, sentire – to feel, perceive, sense

  12. 3rd -io • There is a special class of third conjugation verbs whose first principle part, the first person singular present active indicative ends in “-io,” though the second principle part, the present active infinitive, ends in the short “-ere.” • These verbs are conjugated like 4th conjugation verbs, despite their infinitive.

  13. CAPIO I take. CAPIS You take. CAPIT He / She / It takes. CAPIMUS We take. CAPITIS Y’all take. CAPIUNT They take. CAPERE to take CAPE Take! CAPITE Take y’all! Capio, capere – to take, seize

  14. VERB CONJUGATIONS • 1st PRIMUS “-are”- STARE, AMARE • 2nd SECUNDUS “-ēre”– DOCĒRE, MONĒRE • 3rd TERTIUS “-ere” – CURRERE, DICERE • 4th QUARTUS “-ire” – SENTIRE, AUDIRE