Today’s Agenda • Ch. 2/3 Guided Reading • http//guardians.net/egypt/kids/index.htm#features • http://www.leicestermuseums.ac.uk/discoveryzone/egypt_explorer/mask.htm • http://www.akrondesign.com/foundation/images/items/Pharaohmask.jpg • http://www.touregypt.net • http://www.cbc.ca/story/arts/national/2006/05/12/mummy-mask.html • www.papiermache.co.uk/i/gallery/items/13_egyptian_m.jpg
Main Idea Two Empires along the Nile, Egypt and Nubia, forged commercial, cultural, and political connections. Why It Matters Now Neighboring civilizations today participate in cultural exchange as well as conflict.
Terms & Names • Thebes 8. Tribute • Ahmose 9. Incense • Hatshepsut • Thutmose III • Akhenaton • Tutankhamen • Ramses II
The Middle Kingdom • About 2300 BC, the pharaohs lost control of Egypt as nobles battled one another for power. • Almost 200 years of confusion followed. • Finally, a new dynasty of pharaohs came to power and moved their capital to the city of Thebes. • They restored order and stability during this period known as the Middle Kingdom.
Golden Age • The Middle Kingdom lasted from about 2050 to 1670 BC. • During this time, Egyptians enjoyed a golden age of stability, prosperity, and achievement.
The Drive for More Land • During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt took control of new lands. • Soldiers captured Nubia to the south and attacked what is now Syria. • The conquered peoples sent tribute, or forced payments, to the Egyptian pharaoh, enriching the kingdom.
Infrastructure • Egyptian pharaohs added more waterways and dams. • They increased the amount of land being farmed and built a canal between the Nile River and the Red Sea.
The Arts Blossom • During the Middle Kingdom, arts, literature, and architecture thrived. • Painters covered the walls of tombs and temples with colorful scenes of the deities and daily life. • Sculptors created large wall carvings and statues of the pharaohs, showing them as ordinary people rather than godlike figures. • Poets wrote love songs and tributes to the pharaohs.
Valley of the Kings • A new form of architecture was also created. • Instead of building pyramids, pharaohs had their tombs cut into cliffs west of the Nile River. • This area became known as the Valley of the Kings.
The Valley of the Kings • Like the rulers of the Old Kingdom, who built the towering pyramids, rulers of the New Kingdom erected grand buildings. • In search of security in the afterlife—and protection form grave robbers—they hid their splendid tombs beneath desert cliffs. • They chose a remote site near the city of Thebes called the Valley of the Kings.
The Hyksos • The Middle Kingdom came to an end in 1670 BC. • Nobles were again plotting to take power from the pharaohs. • Egypt also faced a serious threat from outside. • A people known as the Hyksos, from western Asia, attacked Asia.
Weapons Advantage • The Hyksos were mighty warriors. • They crossed the desert in horse-drawn chariots and used weapons made of bronze and iron. • Egyptians had always fought on foot with copper and stone weapons which were no match for the invaders.
Ahmose • The Hyksos ruled Egypt for about 150 years until around 1550 BC. • An Egyptian prince named Ahmose led an uprising that drove the Hyksos out of Egypt.
The Hyksos ruled Egypt from about 1640-1550 BC. The Hyksos invasion shook the Egyptians’ confidence in the desert barriers that had protected their kingdom. The Hyksos
Hebrews Migrate to Egypt • During the Hyksos rule, some historians believe that another Asiatic group, the Hebrews, settled in Egypt. • According to the Bible, Abraham and his family first crossed the Euphrates River and came to Canaan around 1800 BC. • Then around 1650 BC, the descendants of Abraham moved again—this time to Egypt.
Hebrews in Egypt • Some historians believe that the Hyksos encouraged the Hebrews to settle there because the two groups were racially similar. • The Egyptians resented the presence of the Hyksos in their land but were power-less to remove them.
The Fall of the Hyksos • The next Pharaoh, Kamose, won a great victory over the hated Hyksos. His successor drove the Hyksos completely out of Egypt and pursued them across the Sinai Peninsula into Palestine. • According to some biblical scholars, the Hebrews remained in Egypt and were enslaved and forced into hard labor. They would not leave Egypt until sometime between 1500-1200 BC.
Hatshepsut’s Prosperous Rule • Among the rulers of the New Kingdom, Hatshepsut, who declared herself pharaoh around 1480 BC, was unique. • She took over because her nephew, the male heir to the throne, was a child at the time. • Unlike other New Kingdom rulers, Hatshepsut spent most of her time encouraging trade rather than just waging war.
Hatshepsut • The trading expedition Hatshepsut ordered to the Land of Punt, near present-day Somalia, was particularly successful. • Hatshepsut sent a fleet of five ships down the Red Sea to Punt in search of Myrrh, frankincense, and fragrant ointments used for religious ceremonies and in cosmetics. • The fleet also brought back gold, ivory, and unusual plants and animal skins.
Hatshepsut’s Reign • Hatshepsut was an excellent ruler of out-standing achievement who made Egypt more prosperous. • Some of this wealth was used to build monuments. • She planned a tomb for herself in the Valley of the Kings. • Carved reliefs on the walls of the temple reveal the glories of her reign.
Thutmose the Empire Builder • Hatshepsut’s nephew, Thutmose III, proved to be a much more warlike ruler. • In his eagerness to ascend to the throne, Thutmose III may have murdered Hatshepsut. • He led a number of victorious invasions into Palestine and Syria. • His armies also pushed farther south into Nubia. Egypt had traded with Nubia and influenced the region since the time of the Middle Kingdom.
Egyptian Empire • Thutmose’s empire grew rich from trade and tribute. • Conquered peoples were forced to send gold, copper, ivory, and other valuables along with enslaved people. • These captives were put to work rebuilding Thebes. • They filled the city with beautiful palaces, temples, and monuments.
Slavery • Slavery had not been widespread in Egypt before. • During the New Kingdom it became more common. • Enslaved people did have the right to own property, marry, and eventually be granted their freedom.
Amenhotep IV • About 1370 BC, Amenhotep IV came to the throne. • With the help of his wife, Nefertiti, Amenhotep tried to lead Egypt in a new direction. • He realized that Egypt’s priests were gaining power at the expense of the pharaohs.
Religious Reform • In an attempt to maintain his own power, Amenhotep introduced a new religion that swept away the old gods and goddesses. • Instead, only one god, called Aton, was to be worshipped. • When Egypt’s priests resisted these changes, Amenhotep removed many from their positions, seized their lands, and closed temples.
Akhenaton • He changed his name to Akhenaton, which means “Spirit of Aton.” • Akhenaton also moved the capital. • To most Egyptians, Akhenaton’s attacks on the gods seemed to be an attack on Egypt. • They refused to accept Aton as the only god.
Rebel King • Akhenaton became so devoted to his new religion that he neglected his duties as pharaoh. • The administrators he appointed were not as experienced as the priests they replaced, and Akhenaton took no action when enemies from what is now Turkey, the Hittites, attacked Egypt.
The Boy King • When Akhenaton died, his son-in-law inherited the throne. • The new pharaoh, Tutankhamen, was a boy about 10 years old. • He relied on palace officials and priests, who convinced him to restore the old religion. • After ruling for only 9 years, Tutankhamen died unexpectedly.
King Tut’s Legacy • Whether he was murdered or suffered from a fall is not clear. • King Tut played only a small role in Egypt’s history. • He is one of the best known pharaohs in Egypt’s history because his tomb was discovered by Howard Carter in 1922. • The tomb contained the king’s mummy and incredible treasures.
The End of the New Kingdom • During the 1200’s BC, pharaohs worked to make Egypt great again. • The most effective of these pharaohs was Ramses II. • He reigned for 66 years, from 1279 to 1213 BC. • During this time, Egyptian armies regained lands in western Asia and rebuilt the empire.
The Age of Builders • The pharaohs of this period built royal tombs, great palaces, and magnificent temples. • The Royal title pharaoh means “great house” and comes from this time period. • Ramses II stood out among the great builders of the New Kingdom. • Many new temples were built by enslaved prisoners of war.
Temples • Egyptian temples did not hold regular services. • Most Egyptians prayed at home and considered temples to be houses for the gods and goddesses. • Priests and priestesses performed daily temple rituals, washing statues of the deities and bringing them food.
Luxor Karnak • The temples also served as banks. • Egyptians used them to store valuable items, such as gold jewelry, sweet-smelling oils, and finely woven cloth.
Karnak and Luxor • At Karnak, he added to a monumental temple to Amon-Re, Egypt’s chief god. • Ramses also ordered a temple to be carved into the red sandstone cliffs above the Nile River at Abu Simbel. • He had these temples decorated with enormous statues of himself. The ears of these statues alone measured more that three feet.