Learning Objective: • Student will be able to identify different boundaries and how/why they are created in various ways.
Two Categories of Boundaries • Natural (physical) boundaries: based on recognizable physiographic features such as mountains, rives, and lakes (Getis, p. 304) • Artificial (geometric) boundaries: typically based on parallels of latitude or meridians of longitude (Getis, p. 304).
Antecedent Boundary • Antecedent Boundary: drawn across an area before it was well populated, before the cultural landscape developed (Getis, p. 304). • Example: Western U.S. and Canada, usually occurs based on treaties, if Antarctica becomes inhabited, it would have an antecedent boundary (People already lay claim to areas)
Subsequent Boundaries: • Subsequent Boundaries: drawn after the development of the cultural landscape. Has two sub-sets: • Consequent Boundary: border drawn to accommodate existing religious, linguistic, ethnic, or economic differences between countries. Example: Northern Ireland. • Superimposed Boundary: boundary forced upon people; often no regard for cultural elements. Example: Africa following the treaty of Berlin.
Boundaries & Conflict • Boundaries are typically going to be a source of conflict. • Ethnic disputes and joining of ethnic groups • Resource allocation • Political consideration for security: • Nomadic groups • Immigrants