Various Incentives Schemes of Railways
History Ever since globalization transformed the transport sector, national boundaries have become permeable to penetration by trade, creating the need for flexible transport solutions. Intermodalism and containerization were the by-products of this era and were poised to metamorphose size transport of "general cargo", moving it 'seamlessly' through sea and land arteries. Forty years ago, the physical process of exporting or importing goods was arduous. Goods needed to be transported by lorry to the port, unloaded into a warehouse and then reloaded into the ship 'piece by piece'. Malcolm McLean's idea of containerization changed the basics of cargo transport by standardizing the dimensions of the container and simultaneously improving the productivity of ports by mechanizing handling of container-carrying 'cellular' ships and reducing their handling to a few hours only. Unitisation helped elimination of multiple handling of cargo and made transfers quick, cheap and easy. As containerization came to stand for 'cargo care', it grew by leaps and bounds the world over.
Indian Railway's strategic initiative to containerize cargo transport put India on the multi-modal map for the first time in 1966. Given the continental distances in India (almost 3000 km from North to South and East to West), rail transport could be the cheaper option for all cargo over medium and long distances, especially if the cost of inter-modal transfers could be reduced. Containerized multi-modal door-to-door transport provided the ideal solution to this problem. It was this idea that saw the Indian Railways entering the market for moving door-to-door domestic cargo in special DSO containers starting in 1966. Though the first ISO marine container had been handled in India at Cochin as early as 1973, it was in 1981 that the first ISO container was moved inland by the Indian Railways to India's first Inland Container Depot (ICD) at Bangaluru, also managed by the Indian Railways. Expansion of the network to 7 ICDs by 1988 saw increase in the handling of containers, and along the way, a strong view had emerged that there was a need to set up a separate pro-active organization for promoting and managing the growth of containerization in India.
Own Your Wagon Scheme Introduction The Own Your Wagon (OYW) scheme was started in the early 90s to get private investments for buildingup modern wagon stock. The parties eligible to enter the scheme are: • Individuals as producers • Corporate entities as producers • Association or group of companies • Thermal plants and other bulk consumers • Leasing companies
Under the scheme, the wagons could either be procured directly from a wagon builder or from the IR. In the former case, the wagon buyer has to pay a design loan and an inspection charge of one and a half percent and in the latter case, the buyer has to pay a service charge of three per cent of the price. The utilisation of the wagons, which could either be under a general pool or a closed circuit, would be mutually decided. The benefits to the owners under three possible arrangements are given below : • Pure lease: As a pure lease, the wagon is used by the IR as a general wagon and it pays lease charges at the rate of 16 per cent per annum, on quarterly basis for a period of ten years, followed by a rate of one per cent for the next ten years. This lease charge will be calculated on the current price of similar wagons owned by the IR. After the expiry of further ten years the lease is continued on mutually agreed terms. Owner however also has freedom to dispose of the wagon. Maintenance will done by IR at its own cost.
Lease cum guaranteed clearance with general service wagons: Under this arrangement, IR in addition to paying the lease as specified before would assure the lessor to clear a minimum volume of traffic during a specific period. The movement of traffic would however be subject to rules, legal and administrative provisions like the Railway act, preferential traffic schedule, central or state government restrictions/bans on movement of goods etc. There would no further freight concession. Maintenance of the wagons would be done by IR at its own cost • Guaranteed clearance: In this category, lease charges will not be paid to the wagons moving in dedicated routes. However IR would give a concession in the freight rates depending on the movement patterns of the wagons. The freight concession would vary with changes in budget provisions. Maintenance would be done by the IR and the rates would be charged to owners at rates which are mutually agreed to. • In spite of the changes in the modalities of the scheme, it has not picked up as expected.
COMMENTS The scheme has many one sided contract clauses, like the termination of guarantees in case of damage of wagons in accidents by paying the book value (which due to depreciation provisions of Income Tax law would be much lower than the market value of the asset). Similarly, in case there are any change of rules, which are unacceptable to the owner, the wagons would revert to IR at the book value. While availability of wagons to participants could increase due to supply guarantees, the non-participants could also benefit due to increased over all supply of wagons. Thus, competing firms might have different capital costs while enjoying similar benefits of increased wagon allocation. Another significant issue is the IR's own ability in delivering service level guarantees. Conceptually, there would be a question as to whether such a scheme can be successful at all in a pooled wagon system. There still would be scope where wagons could be dedicated to a customer like in iron ore circuits, coal merry go round etc. In terms of the stakeholding for wagon investment, the incentive compatibility is appropriate for major users, provided the scheme meets with their requirements.
Own siding setting up and maintenance • Nodal Agency : In order to provide a ‘Single Window’ service to customers,Board has decided that Chief Traffic Planning Manager (CTPM) at the zonal level should be nominated as the Nodal Officer for all siding matters throughout the construction stage and signing of the agreement. • 2 Time Frame : Complaints have been received from users that the whole process of survey, approval of plan and final inspection etc. takes a lot of time. It has been decided that Railways should observe a time frame for processing proposals as follows: • (i) Six months to one year depending on the size of the project, where survey is done by the Railway and work is executed under Railway’s supervision. • (ii) When survey is done by empanelled consultants and work is supervised by them, conceptual Plan should be approved within two months and final approval within four months of submission of detailed project report.
3 Capital Cost : 3.1 The siding owner shall bear the capital cost of the siding from the take-off point at the serving station including OHE. 3.2 The capital cost of all traffic facilities such as ‘Y’ connection, additional lines at the serving station, crossing stations, patch doubling of the section etc. shall be fully borne by the railways. The distance for charging of tariff, for each ‘Y’ connection shall, however be inflated/increased by 5 (five) kilometers. However, the capital cost for augmenting the facilities, within the premises of siding owner shall be borne by the siding owner.
4 Electrification cost : New Sidings: Existing Sidings: For a new siding in the electrified territory or the territory approved for electrification, the capital cost of OHE should be borne by the siding owner. This will also apply to the Military sidings. It has also been decided to electrify diesel sidings located on electrified sections at Railways’ cost, where heavy detentions occur and a prescribed number of rakes are handled per month. Detailed guidelines in this regard are being formulated and will be issued separately.
5. Engine on load (EOL) Policy : • Instructions regarding EOL system have been issued vide Board’s letter No. TC-I/94/ 214/9/Vol.-II. Dated 18.3.2005. • Revival of Assisted Sidings : • (A) It has been decided to revive the concept of Assisted Sidings. Under this concept Railways shall share the cost of a new railway siding if the industry comes up with a long-term commitment of traffic for 10 years or more, commensurate with the investment of Railways. Detailed instructions in this regard are being issued separately. • (i) Under this arrangement, Siding owners will be required to bear the cost of the land, earthwork, sub structure of the track, ballast, buildings outside the premises of the siding owner. • (ii) The cost of the removable super structure including track, sleepers, fastenings girders of bridges, points & crossings, fencing, signaling and interlocking appliances, machineries of any kind and the overhead electric equipment shall be borne by the railways, outside the premises of the siding owner.
(B) However, in all other cases (where commitment of traffic for 10 years or more is not forthcoming), the siding owner shall bear the capital cost of the siding from the take off point at the serving station including OHE, in terms of para 3.1 and 4.1 (New Sidings). 7. The Standard Siding Agreement is being modified accordingly and will be issued separately. 8. These instructions issue with the concurrence of, Mechanical, Civil Engineering, Electrical and Finance Directorates of this Ministry.
Lease of Railway Premises • The Indian Railways has eased conditions for firms to procure and lease rail wagons to other businesses in an attempt to make its three-year-old Wagon Leasing Scheme more attractive for the private sector. Launched in 2008, the scheme had failed to take off with firms blaming its stringent conditions. • The railways has now lowered the eligibility bar for companies, extended the validity of the one-time registration and given more freedom to firms in sourcing of wagons, a senior railway ministry official said. According to the new norms, a company with a net worth of 100 crore could operate under the Wagon Leasing Scheme. The railways has also extended the validity of the one-time registration to 35 years with a provision for further extension on payment of registration fees. • Industry had raised concerns over the 20-year validity prescribed under the old norms. Although, the scheme allowed an extension of 10 years, industry said the period was short to recover investments made in the capital-intensive business.
It also allows a company to import wagons and lease them to private container operators and the railways. To streamline the policy of rebate, the Railways has said that the rebate approved will be the same as given under the scheme under which the wagons were procured. It has, however, introduced provisions for imposing charges on the company if the train suffers detention due to them. • In November 2010, Railway Minister Mamata Banerjee met industry representatives to garner support for the projects launched under the public private partnership mode. At that time, the industry had raised with her issues concerning the Wagon Leasing Scheme also.
Volume discount • To attract additional traffic by offering freight discount • Applicable to both existing as well as new traffic. • 2. Station - to - station concession in freight rates will be applicable to a specific stream of traffic of a particular commodity for movement between a pair of specific originating and destination stations. • 3. The concession can be granted either to a consignor or a consignee both for 'paid' and 'to pay' and only for block rate traffic. • 4. Concession under Station to Station scheme will be granted only if the Rail user offers written commitment to move traffic equal to or higher than the benchmark level during the proposed period.
5. The Station to Station Concession will be in the form of percentage discount, over the prevailing freight rates and only on that volume of traffic to which concession under no other scheme has been granted. 6. No concession in freight rates will be granted in respect of the following commodities:- All commodities with classification below dass-110. Coal (all types) Lignite Livestock e) 'Dangerous' commodities or those having suffix 'd' with their nomenclature in the Goods Traffic except P.O.L. products. 7. Station to Station concession in freight rates may be granted for a period of not less then three months and not more than twelve months. For new traffic, it may be granted for a maximum period of three years.
8. Concession under the scheme will be granted only on therecommendation of both CCM & COM duly concurred by FA & CAO and with personal approval of the General Manager of the Zonal Railway. 9. The applicant will be required to furnish a General Indemnity Bond to pay under charges equivalent to the total amount of freight concession proposed to be availed to indemnify the Railways against loss of revenue in case of non-fulfillment of the commitment.
Modalities: • Rail users desirous of availing STS concession in freight rates will be required to apply for the same giving written commitment in respect of traffic to be offered, in tonnes, during the proposed period. STS concession in freight rates may be granted for a period of not less than 3 (three) months and not more than 12 (twelve) months. • For the "New" traffic, concession in freight rates may be granted for maximum period of 3 (three) years. • The applicant will also be required to furnish a General Indemnity Bond to pay undercharges equivalent to the total amount of freight concession proposed to be availed to indemnify the Railway against loss of revenue in case of non-fulfillment of the commitment in respect of traffic offered for rail movement under this scheme. If the applicant is a "Consignee" the General Indemnity Bond should be endorsed by the consignors).
Concession in freight rates under the STS Scheme will be granted only the recommendations of both CCM and COM, duly concurred by FA & CAO and with personal approval of the General Manager of the Zonal Railway. • Traffic in respect of rail users who have been granted concession in freight rates under the STS scheme will be booked at the reduced freight rate in case of "Paid" traffic. • In case of "To Pay" traffic, STS concession would be leviable on the normal freight rate and will be granted as a refund to the rail user on quarterly basis on fulfillment of the commitment. The To-Pay" surcharge will be calculated at the destination on normal freight rate as per the extant rules.
Zonal Railways should raise undercharges against the rail user who fell to fulfill their commitment of offer of traffic as and initiate action to invoke the General Indemnity Bond to recover the amounts due to the Railways. • Zonal Railways may forward such proposals for STS concession in • freight as are not covered under these guidelines, to Railways Board with full details and complete Justification. Such proposals must have recommendations of both CCM and COM, concurrence of FA & CAO and personal approval of the General Manager.
Introduction • Container Corporation of India Ltd. (CONCOR), was incorporated in March 1988 under the Companies Act, and commenced operation from November 1989 taking over the existing network of 7 ICDs from the Indian Railways. • It is now an undisputed market leader having the largest network of 62 ICDs/CFSs in India. In addition to providing inland transport by rail for containers, it has also expanded to cover management of Ports, air cargo complexes and establishing cold-chain. The company developed multimodal logistics support for India’s International and Domestic containerization and trade. Though rail is the main stay of our transportation plan, road services and also provided to cater to the need of door-to-door services, whether in the International or Domestic business.
CONCOR is committed to providing responsive, cost effective, efficient and reliable logistics solution to its customers. It strives to be the first choice for its customers. It is a customer focused, performance driven, result oriented organization, focused on providing value for money to its customers.
MISSION STATEMENT “ OUR MISSION IS TO JOIN WITH OUR COMMUNITY PARTNERS AND STAKE HOLDERS TO MAKE CONCOR A COMPANY OF OUTSTANDING QUALITY. WE DO THIS BY PROVIDING RESPONSIVE, COST EFFECTIVE, EFFICIENT AND RELIABLE LOGISTICS SOLUTIONS TO OUR CUSTOMERS THROUGH SYNERGY WITH OUR COMMUNITY PARTNERS AND ENSURING PROFITABILITY AND GROWTH. WE STRIVE TO BE THE FIRST CHOICE FOR OUR CUSTOMERS. WE WILL BE FIRMLY COMMITTED TO OUR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND PROVE WORTHY OF TRUST REPOSED IN US.”
OBJECTIVES • “WE WILL BE A CUSTOMER FOCUSSED , PERFORMANCE DRIVEN , RESULT ORIENTED ORGANISATION, FOCUSSED ON PROVIDING VALUE FOR MONEY TO OUR CUSTOMERS..” • “WE WILL STRIVE TO MAXIMISE PRODUCTIVE UTILISATION OF RESOURCES, DELIVER HIGH QUALITY OF SERVICES, AND BE RECOGNISED AS SETTING THE STANDARDS FOR EXCELLENCE.” • “WE WILL CONSTANTLY LOOK FOR NEW AND BETTER WAYS TO PROVIDE INNOVATIVE SERVICES. WE WILL AIM FOR CUSTOMER CONVENIENCE AND SATISFACTION, LEARN FROM OUR COMPETITORS AND ALWAYS STRIVE FOR EXCELLENCE.”
“WE WILL SET MEASURABLE PERFORMANCE GOALS TO SUPPORT THE OBJECTIVES AND MISSION OF OUR ORGANISATION AND WORK AS A PROFESSIONAL, COMPETENT AND DEDICATED TEAM FOR THE ORGANISATION TO ACHIEVE EXCELLENCE IN ALL AREAS OF OUR BUSINESS AND OPERATIONS BY BENCHMARKING OURSELVES WITH OUR COMPETITORS.” • “WE WILL FOLLOW HIGHEST STANDARDS OF BUSINESS ETHICS AND ADD SOCIAL VALUE FOR THE COMMUNITY AT LARGE BY DISCHARGING SOCIAL OBLIGATIONS AS A RESPONSIBLE CORPORATE ENTITY.” • “WE WILL MAINTAIN ABSOLUTE INTEGRITY, HONESTY, TRANSPARENCY AND FAIR-PLAY IN ALL OUR OFFICIAL DEALINGS AND STRIVE TO MAINTAIN HIGH STANDARDS OF MORALITY IN OUR PERSONAL LIFE.”
CONCOR CONTAINER CORPORATION OF INDIA LTDQUALITY POLICY “WE ARE COMMITTED TO PROVIDE RELIABLE, RESPONSIVE, SAFE AND VALUE ADDED MULTIMODAL LOGISTIC SERVICES IN A COST EFFECTIVE & CONSISTENT MANNER USING LATEST INNOVATIONS TO ENSURE COMPLETE CUSTOMER CONVENIENCE & SATISFACTION AND VALUE FOR MONEY THROUGH CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT OF OUR QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES.”
Facilities • CONCOR divides its services on the basis of: • International • Domestic
INTERNATIONAL SERVICES BY CONCOR • Train services • Block booking on road trip basis • Road services • LCL hub services • Air cargo services • Bonded warehousing • Reefer service • Factory Stuffing/Destuffing • Discount schemes • Cabotage of ISO container • CONCOR’s policy on waiver of terminal service charges
CONCOR OFFER OF BLOCK BOOKING ON ROUND TRIP BASIS • “Scheduled Day Service on Round Trip Basis” will be offered to shipping line / group of lines/ consolidators fro ICD Dadri from Mundra, Vizag and Pipavav. Similar Services will be considered from select CONCOR terminals to these gateway ports on request. Services to other ports like Chennai, Kolkata and Haldia ports can also be considered. • The Line /Lines together will be required to pay a minimum amount for booking of a rake on round trip basis. For this, they will register with the respective terminals and open a pre-deposit account with CONCOR at the originating terminal. The necessary minimum amount may be deposited in the PDA before the start of the train.
The schedule of departure and the number of services may be decided by the shipping line/ lines, which CONCOR will agree to if there are no serious operational constraints. Occasional request for rescheduling of a particular service may be accommodated, provided such request is received at least one day prior to the scheduled departure of the train from ICD. The train will be run with on hand containers following FIFO. • The same rake as would carry export volumes to port will bring back import boxes for the same line/ consolidator. The necessary loading at port end has to be tied up with the port terminal operator by the consolidator/ Shipping line. • Non-dedicated ‘common services’ to Mundra, Pipava and Vizag ports will continue to run regularly, the frequency of which will be intimated from time to time
LCL consolidation/Hub • The process of LCL consolidation involves the movement of less than container load cargo from an Inland Container Deport to a nominated 'hub' terminal under customs seal, usually in a domestic container of some sort. • At the nominated hub terminal, the sealed containers are opened and the cargo re-worked on a destination wise basis without having to be subjected to re-examination by customs.
Reduced transit times of LCL hub movements have provided opportunity to shippers to move their LCL consignments faster, at extremely cost effective LCL sea tariffs. • CONCOR currently provides LCL consolidation services from various locations such as Agra, Moradabad, Kanpur, Dhandari Kalan (Ludhiana), Whitefield (Bangalore), Tondiarpet (Chennai), Sanathnagar (Secundrabad), Sabarmati (Ahmedabad), Nagpur, Aurangabad, Mulund (Mumbai) and Pithampur (Indore).
Air Cargo services In pursuance of its objective to provide improved Intermodal logistics solutions to India’s trade, CONCOR entered the field of air cargo in 1999. The Air Cargo business was formalized as a division at the Corporate Office in 2003 to provide a focused attention. CONCOR undertakes various Air Cargo activities as follows: Road feeder services a)Airports to airportsb)Airports to Inland Container Depots/Container Freight Station Air Cargo Complex and Centre for Perishable Cargo at Nasik. Centres for Perishable Cargo at Goa airports. Domestic Air Cargo Complex at Mumbai Airport. Bonded warehousing for imports at its ICDs/CFSs.
Bonded warehousing • The concept of 'bonded warehousing' was first tried out at Whitefield (Bangalore). The importers could store cargo and effect partial releases thereby deferring duty payment to Customs, and at the same time releasing the international (ISO) container in which the cargo is imported. • Bonded warehousing offers a dual advantage to the importer. On the one hand, it allows the deferral to duty payment, and at the same time, allows for cargo to be stored under the relatively cheaper option of warehouse storage as opposed to holding on to an ISO container for which dollar lease rentals accrue on the importer.
CONCOR has a unique advantage in offering this service. Its warehouses are located in close proximity to the sidings/ICDs where imports arrive in the first place. This makes bonding of cargo a very cost effective option, as there are practically no transfer costs involved in the movement of cargo from landing facility to a nominated bonded warehouse.
Reefer services • Reefers, or Refrigerated containers facilitate the movement of cargo that requires a strict temperature controlled environment. Running of Reefer services requires a certain degree of Infrastructure development at the handling terminals, and CONCOR has made such facilities available at its terminals, i.e. ICD Dadri and ICD Kanpur. • The Reefer containers are moved from the terminal to the factories for stuffing on special trailers, on which a "clip on" generator can be attached to supply power to the Reefer units. On return to the ICD, they are stacked at a nominated location with special facilities for plugging in the containers to uninterrupted power sources, and regular temperature monitoring. • The reefer containers are moved on High Speed "BLCA" wagons between ICD Dadri and JNPT/NSICT/GTIL ports in Mumbai. The power to the units while on run is provided from specially designed power packs which are fitted in modified 40 ft containers, and loaded on the trains. Each power pack serves up to 22 FEUs, and CONCOR is currently operating full rakes with reefer containers.
Factory Stuffing/ Destuffing • Keeping in time with the international trend, containers are now going to shipper's units more and more for cargo stuffing/ destuffing • CONCOR's ICDs are now fully geared to provide the requisite "on-carriage" and "pre-carriage" facilities to shippers, hence fully eliminating any cargo handling enrooted.
Discount Schemes CONCOR has special incentive schemes operating at some of its terminals keeping in tune with the existing business trends. Special volume linked incentives are also on offer to shipping lines and exporters. Some of the schemes in vogue are as under: Volume Discount Scheme in Imports to Shipping Lines based on the import containers booked by them from the gateway ports to CONCOR ICDs on CONCOR trains. Volume Discount scheme for rice exporters booking containers from CONCOR’s terminals at ICD Tughlakabad, Dadri, Rewari, Sonepat and Ludhiana. Terminal – Specific schemes are also on offer at various terminals like Jaipur, Jodhpur, Moradabad, Tondiarpet, Whitefield, Dronagiri Node, Pithampur etc.
Cabotage of ISO container • Extensive movement of shipping-line empty containers is undertaken by CONCOR to balance the differential levels of exports and imports in the country. This movement of empty containers represents a wasted capacity, especially on routes where substantial domestic traffic is available for parallel movement by road or even on rail. • In order to optimize the use of its resources, CONCOR offers the facility of "cabotage" to shipping lines who wish to move empty containers as balancing movements. A "cabotaged" container is effectively loaned by the shipping company to the carrier (in this case CONCOR) for a very short period (usually a single one way trip). • During this trip, the carrier is permitted to use the container for movement of domestic cargo. By "cabotaging" these containers, CONCOR can therefore offer a substantial discount to both shipping lines and the potential domestic client. This is seen as an area of focus and strategy to boost volumes and profitability.CONCOR regularly offers Cabotage services on it's core exim route between Mumbai and Delhi
CONCOR’s Policy on Waiver of Terminal Service Charges • Grant of waiver on TSC cannot be claimed as a matter of right by the customer, as it falls within the discretionary powers to be exercised by the competent authority. • Every request for waiver of TSC will be dealt with appropriately, depending on the merit of the case. Ordinarily, no waiver on Terminal Services Charges will be granted. • No request for waiver will be entertained in cases where any fine/penalty/personal penalty/warning has been imposed by Customs authorities or delay arose by reason of dispute in the assessable value. • An appeal against the decision of rejection of an application for waiver can be made to the next higher authority than the deciding authority. Such appeal should be filed within one month of communication of the decision.
Applications for waiver of TSC must be submitted not later than three months from date of delivery. Any delay in this regard, can be condoned only by the Functional Director. • A reasonable free time for taking delivery of the consignment will be allowed, in case waiver has been granted in part or in full. • Request for waiver of TSC should be made only after the Shipper has obtained from Customs the ‘Out of Charge’ Certificate(COOC). In case the customer is not satisfied with the waiver granted at terminal/regional level, he may make an appeal to a higher authority at Corporate Office level, such a request will be entertained only if the customer has taken delivery of the consignment after paying all necessary dues.
In cases where TSC is waived in full or in part, no TSC will be charged for the processing period(provided, COOC has been obtained before making the request). Further, in case where request for a waiver is turned down, the processing period beyond ten(10) working days will be treated as free period for which no TSC will be charged. • CONCOR is not under any obligation to grant waiver, even if “Detention Certificate” issued by customs authorities, is submitted, in cases, where accrual of ground rent is due to excessive time taken by customs authorities in examining and clearing the cargo. In case cargo is sent for laboratory testing, no waiver will be granted if the results of the test are not in favour of the importer.
DOMESTIC SERVICES BY CONCOR • Train services • Volume discount schemes • Door delivery/pickups • Cabotage of ISO container • Terminal handling charges
Door delivery and pickups • One of the prime objectives of the domestic division is to bring back to rail, goods which are now being transported by road. A key business thrust that has been made by the company in the area of domestic business has been in seeking to pick up such traffic that is moving by road by offering door-to-door pick up and delivery services. • The concept of door pick ups and delivery takes them one step closer for achieving the primary objective of becoming a truly multi-modal logistics service provider. • They are also seeking to make the process of delivery and pick up as simple as possible so that all the necessary paper work can be completed at the customer's door, and the customer need not visit the terminal at all.
In certain cases, they have even made arrangements for the unloading of cargo from containers, and the delivery of loose cargo if this the customer's requirements. They are also in close touch with our customers to ensure that deliveries are made as far as possible according to their convenience and requirements. • Rating of door delivery and pickups is normally done on the basis of slab rates
DEFINATION “A common user facility with public authority status equipped with fixed installations and offering services for handling and temporary storage of import/export laden and empty containers carried under customs control and with Customs and other agencies competent to clear goods for home use, warehousing, temporary admissions, re-export, temporary storage for onward transit and outright export. Transshipment of cargo can also take place from such stations.”