Election of 1796 • The first true election was held in 1796, because there was no one (Washington) candidate that all would vote for which led to the use of political parties in the election. • The political party candidates were chosen by Congressmen from each party in Caucus (a party conference to chose candidates). • The Federalists chose John Adams and Thomas Pinckney, the Democratic-Republicans chose Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr. • John Adams was elected the second President and Thomas Jefferson became Vice President. (second most votes gets V.P.)
XYZ Affair • After Jay’s Treaty the French became angry because it looked like America was siding with the British, which to them went against the 1778 Franco-American Treaty of Alliance. • The French also became angry when the American minister to France James Monroe was replaced with C.C. Pinckney. • The French navy and privateers (picaroons) stopped American ships, seized cargo, and impressed American sailors.
XYZ Affair • To keep the nation out of war Adams sent three envoys (diplomats sent on a special diplomatic mission) Charles Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Garryto meet with Duc de Talleyrand, the French foreign minister of the Directory (name of the French government). • Talleyrand’s agents refused to discuss a treaty unless America adopted a more friendly stance with France, gave the Directory a ten million dollar loan, and gave a bribe (money given to influence a decision) of $250,000.
XYZ Affair • The American diplomats refused to pay the bribe and reported the incident to Adams and Congress. • The newspapers printed the story calling the French agents Messieurs (Mr.) X,Y, and Z, which enraged the American public and became known as the XYZ Affair. • The outcry of the incident became “millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute (bribery)”.
XYZ Affair In this political cartoon America (Columbiana) is being disrespected and her money is being taken by the French while the British watch. This cartoon showed the many heads of the French (XYZ), also showing how radical the French revolution had gotten.
Quasi-War • To get respect for America as a great, free, powerful, and independent nation, Adams along with Congress started an undeclared naval war with France called the Quasi-War. • The Department of the Navy was added to the cabinet and 40 new warships were commissioned. • Adams and Congress did not want all out war because the French had a powerful navy, and the most powerful army in the world commanded by Napoleon Bonaparte. (America was out gunned).
First US Naval Ships USS Constellation USS President USS Congress USS Chesapeake USS United States USS Constitution – Old Ironsides
The Alien and Sedition Acts • During the Quasi-War Congress passed a series of laws called the Alien and Sedition Actsto restrict immigration and suspend some of the bill of rights in order to control pro-French sentiment in America. • The first was the Naturalization Act,that increased the residency years to become a citizen from five to fourteen. • The second was the Alien Act,that gave the President the power to deport any alien(foreigner) deemed to be a threat to national security.
The Alien and Sedition Acts • The third was the Alien-enemies Actwhich gave the President the power to deport or imprison all aliens from an enemy nation. • The last was the Sedition Actwhich suspended the first amendment, providing for heavy fines or prison time to anyone found guilty of sedition (causing discontent or uprising against the government). • A separate but important Act was passed called the Logan Actwhich forbids private citizens from negotiating with foreign governments in the name of the United States.
The Alien & Sedition Acts of 1798 Naturalization Act • two previous bills passed in 1790 & 1795 • increased residency requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years Alien Acts • John Marshall’s letters from Paris • Alien Enemies Act – did Congress have heightened powers in time of war • Allowed deportation of persons from abroad deemed “dangerous” by federal Authorities • Republicans objected to the provisions for prosecuting citizens who concealed aliens or inhibited the enforcement of the act Sedition Act • Authorized prosecution of any public assembly or publication critical of government
The Alien and Sedition Acts This cartoon shows Matthew Lyon who was the first person to be put in jail under the Sedition Act. He is also the only person to be elected to Congress while in jail.
The Alien and Sedition Acts • The Alien and Sedition Acts were widely disliked and the Democratic-Republicans said they were a ploy by the Federalists to censor them. • Jefferson and Madison believing the Acts to be unconstitutional and that they concentrated too must power in the hands of the president authored the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. • The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutionsdeveloped the idea of the “compact theory”(that states were before the Federal government, so they could chose not to follow federal law or nullify [cancel] it). • These were early examples of State’s Right’s doctrine and the Nullification Process.
Convention of 1800 • The issue of the Quasi – War was finally settled in 1800. • In 1800 Napoleon Bonaparte took over the French government becoming a dictator, but he did not need the Americans interfering in his future plans so he accepted an agreement to end the Quasi-War. • The delegates signed the Convention of 1800which ended the Quasi-War releasing America from any obligations to the French and re-establishing peace between the two nations.
Election of 1800 • In 1800 John Adams wanted to run for a second term as President which he did against fellow Federalist Charles Pinckney and Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr. • Adams and Jefferson attacked each other throughout the campaign using a tactic known as mudslinging (telling lies or the truth to make your opponent look bad). • Throughout the campaign Adams was accused of being a monarchist (wanting to be king) and Jefferson an atheist and wanting to destroy the Constitution.
Election of 1800 • During the election even Adams’s own party turned against him when Hamilton (hated Adams) wrote a pamphlet “The Public Conduct and Character of John Adams” stating that John Adams was unfit to be President again. • When the Electoral College cast it votes both Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson received 73 creating a tie for President, which led to the question of how to solve the problem.
Election of 1800 In this cartoon Thomas Jefferson is seen as trying to burn the U.S. Constitution on the Alter of Tyrants
Adams’s Legacy • John Adams was always playing number two to Washington's number one. • During his presidency he had to deal with the Washington idealism, Thomas Jefferson who hated him as a Vice President, and a cabinet who refused to listen to Adams but rather took their orders from Alexander Hamilton. • Adams was so frustrated he refused to watch Jefferson be sworn in by Chief Justice John Marshall in Washington D.C., instead went home to Braintree, Massachusetts.