Leadership Lessons Learned CAPCSD Conference April 10, 2014
Theory to Practice -The Pragmatics of Leadership -To lead well is to move an enterprise forward with integrity, vision and a positive attitude using whatever resources at your disposal
Leadership QUALITIES: • Strong Core Values • Focused • Optimistic
Leadership Strong Core Values (Holding the Center)
Leadership -Integrity -Today there is no clear path for leaders, especially for women (Bateson, 1990; Sandberg, 2013) • Leadership is changing and constantly redirected • Leadership is improvising, like language learning
-Integrity • Creating external works in research, courses, programs takes courage to hold onto the past and break free. • Creating oneself as a leader takes courage and staying centered.
How to Live…Montaigne -Twenty Attempts to answer how to conduct an honorable and correct life (Bakewell, 2010). -Moral dilemmas of Leadership. -Good of the few over good of the many • Tobacco free campus -Short term good over long term good • Hiring more tenure track faculty
Leadership Losing Giving it up to the “Lord”
Leadership Focused (Holding the Center)
Focusing as Leader -Primary task of leader is to direct attention of others (Goleman, 2013) -Understand your own biases -Cultivate a triad of awareness
Embrace Change or Fear Change -Presidents with gray hair and gray suits bemoaning change -Language of defeat -Not wanting to learn about new ways of doing business -Spiraling downward -Higher Education is in denial…so much for critical thinking
How to Find a Way -Being Ridiculously In Charge (Cloud, 2013) -”Find a Way Thinking,” Nick Roddey (2013) -Asking How We Could Do “IT” -Then asking what might be problems -Once committed, Failure is not an option -Showing people that they can do what they don’t realize they can do…”getting Ripiched”
Innovation as Opportunity -The Innovative University (Christensen, Eyring, 2011) disruptive innovation as good -Innovative Incubator Project, UNE 2014: • Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation • Competency Based Online BS in Business to be developed in 12 mos. • Online growing, competency based degrees coming. Adapt or atrophy.
Leadership SKILLS: • Spinning the Plates • Being Responsible/Taking Risks • Keeping Equity and Balance
Leadership Spinning the Plates
Leadership Keeping Equity and Balance (Cutting the Cake)
Leadership Being Responsible/Taking Risks (Picking Winners)
Blue Ocean - Less than 1% Science Students Study abroad - Problem/Strategy Global Study: • Costs extra and loans too much already • Can’t get good lab courses • Made cost neutral • Built Science labs • Maine to Morocco in 15 months • Eliminated costs/created new product
Blue Ocean Strategy - How to create market space and make competition irrelevant (Kim, Mauborgne, 2005) - Leave the bloody waters by the shore and go for the Blue Ocean, the deep water. - VALUE INNOVATION occurs where costs savings eliminate factors industry competes on and creates elements industry never offered.
Leadership Most Important Asset: A Leader Must Love to Lead!
Resonant Leadership -Power Stress can lead to dissonance(Boyatzis & McKee, 2005) -Leadership requires personal sacrifice and this leads to inability to sustain the self -Renewal requires: • Mindfulness, a state of whole awareness of life. • Hope, a belief in a better future. • Compassion, understanding of human motivations.
Leadership - Seven Secret Steps • Spinning the Plates • Focusing For and On Others • Cutting the Cake • Holding the Center • Returning the Investment • Seeing the Best • Loving the Work Active Verbs – Leadership Takes Action
Intentional Leadership: Harnessing Potential In People & Programs“Leadership matters”Gail M. Whitelaw, PhDThe Ohio State Universitywhitelaw.firstname.lastname@example.org
Leadership matters: • The science of leadership: Challenging the myths • Evidence based leadership • Diversity in leadership • Gender • Generation • Strengths • Creating a culture of leadership in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Defining leadership: • Leadership is a developmental process of growing one's skills in leading others with an awareness and knowledge of our own honesty and integrity. (Leadership Center at The University of North Georgia) • Leadership is a process of social influence, which maximizes the efforts of others, towards the achievement of a goal (Kruse, 2013)
Defining leadership: What leadership is NOT: • Seniority or position in the hierarchy • Titles • Personal attributes (leadership is not an adjective) • Management • (Kruse, 2013)
Some considerations in leadership (Loeb and Kindel, 1999) • The “natural leader” • Charisma should not be confused with skill • Confusing leadership with command (the authority to lead) • Confusing leadership with management (focus on tasks, do things) (an ongoing theme) • The old adage of “manage things, lead people”
Managing vs. leading • Leaders • First who, then what? Focus on people and getting the “right people on the bus”, then getting them in the right seats (Collins, 2001) • Part of why we hope you are here today—addressing how to get people on the bus • Leaders do the right things; not to be confused with the popular things: A couple of examples from professional organizations • Business being business vs. friendship being friendship!
Leadership matters • Studies vary in the influence that leaders have in an organization, from less than 10% of difference between best and worst organization to being all knowing • Pfeffer and Sutton (2006) indicate that although effects of leadership are overstated, there are many rigorous field studies and experiments that document situations in which leadership skills and actions have significant impact (See Goethals, Sorenseon, and Burns, 2004)
Theories of Leadership • There is a science of leadership that can be applied to this process • Have evolved and changed over the years, some with research, some with changes in the “culture” in which leadership occurs, some with a generational approach • Some vogue, some recycled and “old school”
Themes in leadership Where we’ve been, where we’re going
“Leaders are born, not made” • Theories that are based on the individual as leader and what they are “born with” • “Great man theory” • Trait theory (Stogdill, 1948, 1974) • People are born with traits that make them particularly suited to leadership. These skills would include a combination of goal orientation, ambition, and decisiveness. May identify a particular personality or behavioral characteristic shared by leaders. • Outdated, as these traits are based on trait studies first in the 1940’s, then in the 1970’s
“Leaders are made, not born” • Behavioral theories • Successful leadership is based on a well defined set of behavioral that can be learned through teaching and observation • Based on teaching leaders a set of skills in order to be leaders • Rooted in the psychological theory of behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders
Organizational Theories • These set of theories are based on the leader being “in change” of the organization and focus on a leader/follower hierarchy • Transactional theory of leadership: • People are motivated by “reward and punishment” • Clear chain of command and clear structure for followers • Also known as “management theories” • Used in business—when employees are successful, they are rewarded, when they fail, they are reprimanded
Where we are and where we’re going Newer theories of leadership
Current theories of leadership • Leadership is not just “top down” but also “bottom up” • Flatter hierarchy and see many people in the organization in a leadership role, not just “the leader” • This type of leadership is sometimes referred to as “thought leadership”—will be referred to here as relational and ethical leadership
Relational and ethical leadership theories • Theories based on the root concept of “authentic leadership”, which helps leaders develop the self-awareness they need to be effective • Feedback from those the leader interacts with, 360 degree assessment, getting feedback and using it • Theories focus on the relationship between leader and others, not necessarily a hierarchy • Theories place a premium on transforming belief into action • Focus on creating a positive environment • “Servant leadership” https://greenleaf.org/what-is-servant-leadership • Principle centered leadership (Covey, 1990)
Level 5 Leadership (Collins, 2005) • Build a superior team then figure out the best path to greatness: this concept is “first who, then what”: “getting the right people on the bus then getting them in the right seats” The “Stockdale paradox”: • Believe in the end that you will prevail despite difficulties WHILE confronting the most brutal facts about the current reality • Believe there will be a positive outcome
Level 5 Leadership (Collins, 2005) • Vision: Maintain core ideology yet be open to change…understand what is sacred and cannot be changed and what should be open for change • Focus is on BHAGs…big, hairy, audacious goals • Contrast to management: Focus on getting the day to day things done
Biology of Leadership (Goleman and Boyatzis, 2008) • Based on theories of emotional intelligence and impact on leadership • What happens “in the brain when people interact” • Postulated in neurology of interaction • Social intelligence is described as a “set of interpersonal competencies, built on specific neural circuits, that inspire people to be effective” • As a leader, help brain learn new skill by working hard and garnering information from multiple sources (the 360 degree assessment)
Diversity in leadership Channeling the best in individuals and organizations
Avoiding “group think” in a new age of leadership • The world is full of gatherings for the like-minded. People go to a great deal of trouble to sequester themselves with people who think like them and to screen out people who are different. Instead, leave your comfort zone and seek out diverse people who will challenge your assumptions. If you practice being present, inquiring, and listening, you world will never be the same. Before you know it, you will have crossed divides that would otherwise have been impassable. (Gerzon,2006)
Diversity as a key word in leadership • Breadth of skills and strengths • Balance of gender • Are there still biases? Example from my recent presentation/panel • Generational considerations • Cultural considerations • Historical perspectives of leadership in contrast to current needs and demands
Diversity in gender in leadership • Research that shows stylistic differences • Women tend to be more collaborative than men • Question is Nature vs. Nurture • Evidence of nature: Women and men seem to have neurobiological differences related to communication (how much they talk, what they say, using visual cuing) (Robison, 2005) • Evidence of nurture: Women resent being disciplined by other women (theorized that they are rarely rebuked in school and take it personally) from a paper titled “Wait Until Your Father Gets Home” • (Atwater as cited in the Economist, 2000)
Diversity in gender in leadership • Despite earning the majority of college degrees, women make up just 19% of the U.S. Congress, 5% of Fortune 500 CEOs and 10% of heads of state. (Sandberg and Chavez, 2014)
The paradox for women • If women behave like women, they are viewed as not possessing leadership skills • If women behave like men, they are seen as “bullies” “bitches” and “aggressive” • Recent focus on the word “bossy”: http://banbossy.com/ • Not addressing this can impact profitability of an organization, since gender diversity has been proven to result in better decision making • (Gerber in Robison, 2005) • Gender mix shows potential for best leadership • (Walker, 2004)
Generational/cultural considerations • “The workplace we inhabit today is awash with the conflicting voices and views of the most age- and value-diverse workforce this country has known since our great-great-grandparents abandoned field and farm for factory and office.” (Zemke, Raines, and Filipczak, 2000, p. 9)