Medical terminology lecture 2Introduction to Medical Terminology, the language of medicine O.P. Rodrigues UHAS Sem 1 Yr 1 28th November 2013
Objectives By the end of this lecture you will; • Define the term ‘medical terminology’ • State the concept basis for it. • Define word root, suffix, prefix,combining word, compound word. • State the word parts used in medical terminology. • Demonstrate how to build up a word from the word parts. • Do an exercise on what you have learnt.
Medical terminology Definition: • A language for accurately describing the human body and associated components, conditions, and processes in a science-based manner. • It is used among health care workers esp. in the medical and nursing fields.
Concept basis:how the language is formed • This systematic approach to word building and term comprehension is based on the concept of: • Word roots • Prefixes • Suffixes • The 'word root’ -a term derived from a source language usually Greek or Latin and usually describes a body part. • The ‘prefix’ is added to the front of the word root. It givesadditional information e.g about location of an organ, or time involved. • The ‘suffix’ is attached to the end of a word root to add meaning such as condition, disease process, or procedure.
Linguistics In the creation of every language, certain rules of language apply. These rules are part of language mechanics called linguistics. Linguistics is the scientific study of language. In medical terminology, the rules are simple and logical: 1. The word root comes from the Latin or Ancient Greek word for the body part. Eg. Card/ ( heart). 2. A vowel sound, is added to the word root to provide a smoothing action to the sound of the word when applying a suffix. The most common vowel used is the letter –o-. 3.The combination of the word root plus the vowel sound (word root + vowel) gives the combining form e.gcardi/o.
Etymology • In forming or understanding a word root, you need a basic understanding of the word and the source language. This study of the origin of words is called etymology. • For example, for kidneys, there are two primary roots – one from Greek (νεφρόςnephr(os)) and one from Latin (ren(es)). • Ren/al failurewould be a condition of kidneys. Nephr/it is is also a condition of the kidneys.
Like goes with like • Medical roots generally go together according to language: When it comes to word roots Greek and Latin do not mix. • Greek prefixes go with Greek suffixes and Latin Prefixes with Latin Suffixes. • Though sometimes hybrid words, are used, it is strongly preferred not to mix different lingual roots. Examples of well-accepted medical words that do mix lingual roots are neonat/o/logy [Latin/ Greek] and quadri/plegia.[Latin/Greek].
Decoding • Decoding the medical term is an important process. • Once you practice a bit, decoding a word becomes a piece of cake, and you can get the meaning of even the most complex word. You can first break the word down by getting the meaning of the suffix first, then prefix, and finally the word root. • When in doubt, check the medical terminology dictionary.
THE WORD ROOT • Is the foundation word. All words in a language have a word root including ordinary everyday words. • In English we have trans/port, im/port, ex/port, re/port. • What is the word root? • The word root is Port = to carry. From Latin portare =to carry.
Wood Root • In medical terminology, the Greek word for stomach is gastrikos • This gives us the word root gastras in • gastr/it is ( gastr= Word root) +(it is suffix (inflammation) • gastr/ic, ( gastr= word root) +( icsuffix (pertaining to) .
WORD ROOT • The Greek word for intestines is enteron. • This gives us the word root ‘enter’as in: enter /ic and enter/it is and enter/o. • In both examples, we see that the word root is not the whole Latin or Greek word, but a part of it.
COMBINING FORM • A vowel (a,e,i,o,u, y).soundis added the word root to smoothen the sound of the word when it is to be added to suffix. • This new word form is called a combining form. A combining form = word root + vowel The most common vowel used for this the letter -o- Exercise: • In the word therm/o/meter. The word root ‘therm’ is added to the vowel ‘o’ to give the ………… ………. ‘therm/o’.(Greek :therm=heat,)
Value of combining form • Adding a vowel to word root to form a combining form is very useful. • allows 2 or more words to be joined to form a compound word. • allows a word root to be joined to suffix to form a new word. • Makes it easier to pronounce a word.
Combining form Word building
Some combining forms and their origins • Cyt/ o = cell (Greek) • Hydr/o =water = (Greek) • Enter/o = intestines (Greek ) • Ren/ o = kidneys (Latin) • Man/u = hand (Latin) • Caud/o = tail (Latin)
When do you use a Combining form? • A combining form is used when joining a word root to another word root or suffix that begins with a consonant. • A word root is used alone if the word to be joined to it begins with a vowel. • Eg we write hydr/o/cele but dermat/it is (Exceptions occur however: eg we write gastr/o/enteritis, but gastr/it is)
COMPOUND WORDS • A word formed when a word root or combining form is joined to another word root is called a compound word. • Because they are formed by joining two or more word roots, they are called ………. ……. • E.gTHERM/O + METER = THERM/O/METER. • Compound words occur in English too! E.g. • CHICKEN + POX = CHICKENPOX DOWN + LOAD = DOWNLOAD.
Compound words in English House + hold= household
How compound words are formed in medical terminology Compound words can be formed by joining : Two whole words:eg, • BRAIN + STEM = BRAINSTEM • CHICKEN + POX = CHICKEN POX Or more usually, by joining a combining form + word root e.gTherm/o/meter Therm/o = combining form (heat) Meter/ = word root (measure)
Or more usually, by joining a combining form + word root + suffix e.gTherm/o/metr/ic Therm/o = combining form (heat) Metr/ = word root (measure) Ic = suffix meaning ‘pertaining to’
Compound word GASTR/O + DUODEN+ OSTOMY = GASTRODUODENOSTOMY Combining + combining + suffix = compound word form form Meaning?? Suffix: =ostomy =( mouth) opening Combining form : Gastr/ o from word root gastr/ = stomach + o vowel. Word root: Duoden/ =duodenum
Study word : Hydr/o water • Exercise • Build compound words from hydr/o (Greek hyd (water), using the suffixes • phobia ( Greek fear) • -coele ( hollow, sac ) • therapy ( treatment)
PREFIXES • A prefix, is a word part that goes in front of a word root. It can change the meaning of the word. • You can change the meaning of a word by putting new word in front of it. This word is a ……….
Prefixes • Prefix Word New word • Ex tension Extension • Ex press express • Dis please displease • Dis ease disease
SUFFIX • A word added to the end of the word root is a suffix. By adding a suffix,you can change the meaning of a word. Eg • Radi/o + graph + ic (pertaining to) • Radi/o + graph + er (one who) • Radi/o + graph + y ( study of)
Suffixes Suffixes may also change the part of speech. E.gnouns(naming words) may be changed to adjectives( describing words)
Verbs suffixes • -edand – ingare verb (doing word) suffixes. • Exercise: • Add the verb suffix -edand -ingto the following verbs: • Prescribe, incise, Inject. • What tense do you create in each case?
Noun suffixes -ism condition, state, theory Darwinism • -tioncondition eg Contraction • -istspecialist radiologist • -erone who radiographer • -ityquality sensitivity • -it is inflammation cystitis
Adjectives suffixes • Words ending in • –ous(posessing, having, full of) • -ible, -able ( ability) are adjectives. Write some examples of adjectival suffixes.
examples • Muc/ous • Ser/ous • Bili/ous • Irrit/able • Port/able
Practice Word Building • Dysmen o- rrhoea • Prefixword root + vowel + noun suffix combining form (Ill /poor/bad monthflow • Dermat -itis Word root suffix Skin inflammation (Gk rhein=flow) (dys= (badly,ill) (men=month)
How do you know what to put what? There are 3 rules Rule 1:Most of the time, the definitions indicate the last part of the word first.eg, • Dermat/itis = Inflammation _____/itis (of the) skin Dermat/ • Inflammation of the skin Dermat/it is
Rule 2: • Where body systems are involved, the words are usually built in the order that organs are studied in the system. • -itis=inflammation ____/__/____/ -itis • (Of the) stomach Gastr/o/____/___ • (and) small intestine ____/__/enter/___ the word is Gastr/o/enter/itis__
Rule 3 The body part usually comes first and the condition or procedure is the ending.e.g. Dermat/o/mycosis • (Skin) (Fungal infection )
Radi/o + graph + ic • Radi/ word root (Greek) Beam or light. (Latin radiare –to light ) • -o- vowel • graph/ word root (Greek) To draw or write • -icpertaining to. • Meaning: pertaining to the making of xrays.
Study word : micr/o • Build a compound word using the combining form micr/o with the suffixes • - scope ( Gk. to look at, examine) • - surgery (gkchir =hand) • -meter ( Gk. = to measure)
Exercise Build a word from 1.The combining form radi/o and the suffix -graph/er. 2.The combining form acr/o, the word root dermatand the suffix –it is 3. The word root an/aem( a=without) (aem=blood)and the suffix –ic. (pertaining to)
Exercise • In the words cyan/osis, anaem/ia,ili/um, arthr/itis the noun suffixes are? • What are the adjectives and adjective suffixes for these words? • Cyan/ • Anaem/ • Ili / • Arthr/
Word origins- singular and plural s • In English, words become plural usually by adding ‘s’ or ’es’. • In Greek and Latin where most medical words come from the plural is also in Greek and Latin.
Exercise: State the suffix patterns of the following words • Greek Singular Noun Greek Plural Noun • Ganglion Ganglia • Carcinoma carcinomata • Crisis crises • Phalanx phalanges Now make the plural of protozoan, diagnosis, pharynx.
Exercise:State are the suffix patterns of the following Latin words Latin singular Noun Latin Plural Noun • Vertebra Vertbrae • Bacillus Bacilli • Testis Testes • Bacterium Bacteria • Appendix Appendices • Thorax Thoraces