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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1:The Mining Booms Section 2:Ranchers and Farmers Section 3:Native American Struggles Section 4:Farmers in Protest Visual Summary Chapter Menu

  3. The Mining Booms Essential QuestionWhat were the causes and effects of mining booms in the West? Chapter Intro

  4. Ranchers and Farmers Essential QuestionHow did cattle ranchers and farmers adapt to life in the West? Chapter Intro

  5. Native American Struggles Essential QuestionHow did westward expansion affect Native Americans? Chapter Intro

  6. Farmers in Protest Essential QuestionWhy did economic reform movements develop in the late 1800s? Chapter Intro

  7. Chapter Time Line

  8. Chapter Time Line

  9. Chapter Preview-End

  10. What were the causes and effects of mining booms in the West? Section 1-Essential Question

  11. Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • vigilante • subsidy • transcontinental • time zone Academic Vocabulary • sum • extract Section 1-Key Terms

  12. Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Comstock Lode • Leland Stanford Section 1-Key Terms

  13. A B C Which western lifestyle do you think was the most difficult in the late 1800s? A.Mining B.Ranching C.Farming Section 1-Polling Question

  14. Gold, Silver and Boomtowns Miners found gold in the West, leading to the creation of new states. Section 1

  15. Gold, Silver and Boomtowns(cont.) • After the California Gold Rush ended in the mid-1850s, newspapers claimed prospectors were making large sumsof money mining in the Colorado Rockies. • Most gold was deep between rock layers, requiring machinery to extractthe particles. • One of the world’s richest deposits of silver-bearing ore, called the Comstock Lode, was discovered in Nevada in 1859. Life of a Mining Boomtown Section 1

  16. Gold, Silver and Boomtowns(cont.) • Gold finds created boomtowns—towns inhabited by lively, lawless, violent men and vigilantes. • Western mining areas increased in population and by 1890 formed seven new states. Mining and the West, 1848–1890 Section 1

  17. A B C D Which western territory was the first to join the United States in the late 1800s? A.Washington B.Colorado C.Idaho D.Wyoming Section 1

  18. Railroads Connect East and West Railroads transported gold and silver to market and brought supplies to the miners. Section 1

  19. Railroads Connect East and West(cont.) • The need for railroads expanded rapidly between 1865 and 1890. • Government subsidies and land grants supported the expansion. • Much of the land needed came from Native Americans. The Steam Locomotive Section 1

  20. Railroads Connect East and West(cont.) • Land grants were offered to two railroad companies willing to build a transcontinental rail system, which was completed on May 10, 1869. • Union Pacific Company • Central Pacific Company The Steam Locomotive Section 1

  21. Railroads Connect East and West(cont.) • The tracks met at Promontory Summit in the Utah territory, where California governor Leland Stanford drove in a last golden spike. • Effects of the transcontinental railroad included: • Increased demand for steel, coal, and construction supplies The Transcontinental Railroad Section 1

  22. Railroads Connect East and West(cont.) • New towns along rail lines • Ranchers and farmers moved west • Country divided into four time zones • More efficiency in travel and product distribution • A more united America Section 1

  23. A B Which company laid more rail track during the construction of the transcontinental railroad? A.Central Pacific workers B.Union Pacific workers Section 1

  24. Section 1-End

  25. How did cattle ranchers and farmers adapt to life in the West? Section 2-Essential Question

  26. Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • Long Drive • vaquero • homestead • sodbuster • dry farming Academic Vocabulary • locate • factor Section 2-Key Terms

  27. Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Homestead Act Section 2-Key Terms

  28. A B C D What would have enticed you to move your family westward to the Great Plains? A.Free herd of cattle B.Acres of your own land C.Life with Native Americans D.New opportunities Section 2-Polling Question

  29. Cattle on the Plains Ranchers herded their cattle to railroad towns and shipped them to new markets in the North and East. Section 2

  30. Cattle on the Plains(cont.) • Longhorns, a tough breed of cattle, roamed free in the Texas territory. • Demand for beef was high in the North and East. • The Long Driverequired ranchers to drive cattle east 1,000 miles or more to towns located near railroads for transportation to other cities. Cowhands and Cattle Drives Section 2

  31. A B C D Why did the value of Texas cattle suddenly increase around 1865? A.Longhorns were a very flavorful meat. B.Missouri Pacific Railroad C.Abundance of cattle made their value increase. D.Shortage of cattle made their value increase. Section 2

  32. Life on the Great Plains Cowhands and ranchers lived difficult lives on the Plains. Section 2

  33. Life on the Great Plains(cont.) • Storms, stampedes, rustlers, and riding in a saddle every day for months made cattle driving hard work. • Cowhands included: • Veterans of the Civil War • African Americans in search of a better life • Hispanic ranch hands known as vaqueros Cowhands and Cattle Drives Section 2

  34. Life on the Great Plains(cont.) • Ranching eventually replaced cattle drives. Cowhands and Cattle Drives Section 2

  35. A B C D Why were the lives of cowhands and ranchers difficult on the Plains? A.Life was lonely. B.Dust and rain storms were a problem. C.Stampedes D.All of the above Section 2

  36. Farmers Settle the Plains Free land and new farming methods brought many settlers to the Great Plains. Section 2

  37. Farmers Settle the Plains(cont.) • Severalfactorsbrought settlers to the Plains: • Railroads made the journey easier and cheaper. • The Homestead Act brought farmers to the Plains to homestead. • Above-average annual rainfall made the land better suited to farming. Section 2

  38. Farmers Settle the Plains(cont.) • Homesteaders settled on the Plains to own land and be independent: • Scandinavians searching for economic opportunities • African Americans who called themselves “Exodusters” Section 2

  39. Farmers Settle the Plains(cont.) • To overcome the challenging climate, sodbusterstried new methods and tools for farming: • Dry farming • Windmills • Barbed wire fencing Section 2

  40. Farmers Settle the Plains(cont.) • Many farmers went into debt or lost ownership of their farms. • The Oklahoma Territory, designated as “Indian Territory” in the 1830s, was the last region of the Plains to be settled. Section 2

  41. A B C Which group experienced the greatest change in life on the Plains? A.First pioneers B.Ranchers and cowhands C.Native Americans Section 2

  42. Section 2-End

  43. How did westward expansion affect Native Americans? Section 3-Essential Question

  44. Reading Guide Content Vocabulary • nomadic • reservation Academic Vocabulary • ensure • widespread Section 3-Key Terms

  45. Reading Guide (cont.) Key People and Events • Crazy Horse • Sitting Bull • Geronimo • Dawes Act • Wounded Knee Section 3-Key Terms

  46. A B C What action would you have taken had you been a Native American who was told you had to move to a reservation? A.Move to reservation willingly B.Fight for your land and your people C.Work with army leaders and chiefs to find a compromise Section 3-Polling Question

  47. Following the Buffalo Native Americans of the Great Plains depended on buffalo to survive, but railroads threatened this lifestyle. Section 3

  48. Following the Buffalo(cont.) • Government officials wanted to ensurethe safety of whites moving into Native American territory, the Great Plains. • For centuries, some Native Americans lived as farmers and hunters while others lived anomadic life, following herds of buffalo. • American hunters slaughtered the buffalo to feed railroad crews and to prevent herds from blocking the trains. Section 3

  49. A B C Which Native American nation lived a nomadic life? A.Omaha B.Osage C.Sioux Section 3

  50. Conflict Conflict between Native Americans and whites grew as Native Americans were forced onto reservations. Section 3