Drawing from Experience • What images come to mind when you think of Australia? • of the islands of the South Pacific? • of Antarctica? • What do you think life is like there? • This section focuses on the population patterns of Australia, Oceania and Antarctica.
Discussion Question • From what regions have people migrated to Australia, New Zealand and Oceania? • answer: Asia, South Asia, Europe.
Discussion Question • Why do you think Australia welcomes so many immigrants? • answer: the Australian population doesn’t grow fast enough to keep up with the need for workers.
Key Points of Sec. 1 • Many different people settled in the South Pacific, resulting in diverse cultures and lifestyles. • The population of the South Pacific is unevenly distributed because both the physical geography and the climate differ dramatically from place to place and because many areas cannot support life.
Migration between and within South Pacific countries has influenced population patterns and caused a blending of cultures.
Chapter 33:2 Objectives • 1. Describe the lifestyles of the region’s indigenous peoples before colonization. • 2. Summarize how colonial rule affected social, economic, and political structures. • 3. Examine how today’s governments reflects the region’s history.
Drawing from Experience • What do you think Antarctica is like? • Would you be interested in visiting this continent? • In the last section you read about the population of Australia and Oceania. • This section focuses on the history and government of this region.
Introduction • The lives of indigenous peoples and cultures of the South Pacific area have changed in the past 300 years. • The changes have largely been the result of European and American influences on the region.
Indigenous People • Various groups of people from Asia settled Australia and Oceania 40,000 years ago. • Some people might have migrated to Australia over land bridges during the Ice Ages. • Others might have reached the South Pacific region by using canoes and rafts.
Aborigines Aborigines in Australia’s dry interior led a nomadic life. They traveled together in clans, or family groups. To hunt animals, aboriginal men used boomerangs, or heavy throwing sticks that curve when thrown. Women and children gathered plants and seeds.
Coastal Boomerang They are meant to come back. They are used in coastal areas to gather birds and direct them to nets that are flipped in the air to catch them.
Outback Boomerangs • They are meant to stun, then kill, then gut the animals. • They come in all shapes and sizes.
Oceania • People in Oceania lived in family groups along the island coasts. • Their food included fish, shrimp and coconuts. • They also cultivated root crops. • Pacific islanders built canoes that they used to travel throughout the Pacific region.
The Maori • With increasing trade came increasing migrations among the islands. • The Maori left eastern Polynesia and settled in New Zealand, where they hunted, fished and farmed.
European Colonization • Europeans from various countries explored the South Pacific region from the 1500s to the 1700s. • The most well-known explorer was British sailor James Cook. • He undertook three voyages and claimed Australia for Great Britain.
Colonizing Australia • Great Britain first used the colony to house British convicts from overcrowded prisons. • Eventually free settlers from Britain started farms and settlements on the coast. • They introduced sheep to the continent. • These settlers profited from wool exports to Britain.
The discovery of gold in the mid-1880s attracted many more settlers. • Britain and other European countries established settlements in Oceania and New Zealand. • The British settlement of Australia and New Zealand had a disastrous impact on the indigenous people there. • As the British migrated to the interior, they forcibly removed the Aborigines from their land.
They also denied them their rights. • European diseases reduced the Aborigine and Maori population. • Europeans also brought changes to the peoples of Oceania. • Diseases reduced indigenous island population. • As a result, Europeans brought workers from other areas, including South Asia. • This mix led to ethnic conflicts.
? • What contributed to rapid population growth in Australia?
Struggle for Power • During the late 1800s and early 1900s, the U.S. and several other European countries struggled for control of various Pacific islands. • They hoped to increase their commercial interests and gain new sources of raw materials.
After World War I many of Germany’s Pacific colonies came under Japan’s control. • Then in December 1941, Japanese airplanes bombed the U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. • This brought the U.S. into World War II.