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2.3 General Behavior of Waves

2.3 General Behavior of Waves

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2.3 General Behavior of Waves

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  1. 2.3 General Behavior of Waves • Reflection • Refraction • Interference • Diffraction

  2. Reflection The law of reflection: The angle of incidence = The angle of reflection.

  3. Reflection and Huygens’s wavelets

  4. Parabolic Reflector

  5. Ellipse

  6. Whispering Chamber

  7. Refraction The bending of a wave as it passes from one medium to another is called refraction.

  8. Refraction is due to changes in Wavespeed

  9. Refraction and Speed of the Wave

  10. Refraction of wavesIllustrated using Huygens’s wavelets

  11. Waves at a beach

  12. Voices travel further at night, than during the day

  13. With the wind or Into the wind

  14. Range of thunder

  15. Interference Interference refers to the combining or addition of two similar waves. Interference can be destructive, resulting in the effective disappearance of the waves, when they are out of phase. It can be constructive, resulting in the enhancement of the waves, when they are in phase.

  16. Destructive Interference

  17. Constructive Interference

  18. Quincke’s Interference Tube

  19. Path Length Difference and Interference

  20. Interference along antinodal and nodal lines

  21. Noise-canceling headphones utilize destructive interference

  22. Diffraction of Sound

  23. Diffraction Diffraction is the bending of waves around obstacles or the edges of an opening in the same medium. It can be explained using Huygens’s principle. The amount of diffraction depends on the nature of waves and their wavelength. Sound waves diffract much more than light waves. Low-frequency (high-wavelength) sound waves diffract more than high-frequency (low-wavelength) light waves.

  24. Diffraction in Speakers Small-diameter speakers, called tweeters, are used to produce high-frequency sound. The small diameter helps to promote a wider dispersion of the sound. The amount of bending is depends on the ratio: λ/w, λ is the wavelength and w is the width of the opening.