The Meat Industry Each year the average person in this country consumes 97 pounds of beef and veal, 64 pounds of pork, and 90 pounds of poultry
The Meat Industry Very few nations in the world even come close to us in the per capita consumption of meat.
The meat industry Our land is well suited for the production of animals. Americans spend a small portion of their income on food when compared with the rest of the world.
The meat industry Critics say Americans are wasteful in feeding several pounds of feed to animals in return for a pound of meat. Grains fed to animals could be better used to feed people.
The meat industry Producers argue that the land on which animals are grazed could be used for little else. Almost half of the land in this country is unsuitable for raising crops.
The meat industry Grains used for fattening livestock are not considered good for human consumption
The meat industry Agriculture animals also make use of by-products for feed.
The meat industry Meat is very dense in nutrients, a pound of meat may equal or surpass the nutritive content of the feed that produced it. Meat is among the most nutritionally complete food that we eat.
The beef industry Over three quarters of the cash receipts for marketing of meat animals come from the sale of beef. The average size beef herd is around 100 head.
The beef industry In the US there are over forty different breeds as well as many crosses of these breeds.
The beef Industry The breed produced may be selected on many different criteria:
The beef Industry disease resistance, heat tolerance, mothering ability, feed efficiency, size, temperament, or color.
The beef industry Breeds of beef cattle are broken into three categories or groups
British- Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn, these were the first breeds brought into this country, they represent the largest segment of the beef industry.
Continental European Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Chianina, desired for their size and ability to grow
Zebu Breeds Scientifically classified as Bos indicus, the most common type of Zebu is the Braham.
Zebu Breeds Other breeds developed form this line include; Brangus, Simbrah, Santa Gertrudis and Beefmaster.
4 Major Segments: purebred operations cow-calf operations stocker operations feedlot operations
Purebred operations Purpose is to produce seed stock cattle. These cattle are used as the dams and sires of the calves that will be grown to market weight.
Purebred operations Growing purebred stock allows breeders to concentrate on improving an accentuating the advantages of a particular breed.
Cow-Calf operations: Most calves produced are crossbreeds from purebred parents of different breeds.
Cow-Calf operations: Much of this industry is centered in the southern and western states, however, cow-calf operations are found all across the country.
Cow-Calf operations: In the west it is common to leave cows on free range-not fenced in until calving, at weaning time all stock is rounded up for the calves to be sold.
Cow-Calf operations Calves are usually sold at weaning weight, around 500 pounds. Buyers prefer calves that have been castrated and vaccinated and are in good condition.
Stocker operations: Provide a step between the weaning of calves and the finishing or fattening of the animals prior to slaughter.
Stocker operations Weaned calves are placed on pasture and fed a ration to allow for skeletal and muscular growth. Before calves are sold to a feedlot for finishing they must be physically mature.
Feedlot operations: Many feedlot operators are also stockers. Final phase before the animals are sent to slaughter.
Feedlot operations Animals are fed a highly concentrated ration which is designed to put the proper amount of fat cover on the animals.
Feedlot operations Producers usually want sufficient fat cover to allow the animals to grade low choice.
Feedlot operation: Feedlots range in size from feeding fewer than 100 head to those feeding thousands of head each year.
Feedlot operation When animals reach the proper degree of finish, they are sold to slaughter. Usually around 18 to 24 months, weighing 800 to 1500 pounds depending on breed and body type.
The Pork Industry At one time in this country, most people on farms raised hogs. The animals required relatively little space and fit well into most enterprises as a sideline.
The Pork Industry Gestation period of a sow is short, several pigs are born in each litter.
The Pork Industry Time required to build up a herd of hogs is short compared to most other agricultural animals.
The Pork Industry Hogs were once raised to produce fat which was rendered into lard.
The Pork Industry Lard was used in cooking and before petroleum based products was the basic ingredient in a variety of products from lubricants to cosmetics and soap
The Pork Industry Since 1950 hogs have been produced mainly for meat. Per capita consumption of pork increased. Producers have developed hogs that are much leaner than their ancestors.
The Pork Industry As a pork producer, the US ranks behind Asia and Europe.
The Pork Industry Pork production and consumption rank second to beef in the US. Pork is distributed throughout the country. There are religious groups that do not eat pork.
The Pork Industry Popular breeds of swine in the U.S. are categorized as mother or sire breeds.
The Pork Industry Mother breeds include: Landrace and Yorkshire, sire breeds are Duroc and Hampshire. Most hogs are crosses of the mother and sire breeds.
2 phases of industry: Farrowing- where sows give birth to litters of pigs. Sows are usually kept in farrowing crates to prevent injury to the piglets by the sow.
2 phases of industry Finishing- taking feeder pigs to market weight.
The Pork Industry Many producers use confinement systems. Pigs are weaned and grouped with other of the same age and size. The animals are kept in pens rather than running loose.
The Pork Industry Hogs are marketed at about 20 weeks usually weighing 220-260 pounds.
The Pork Industry On the average, pigs will gain one pound for every five pounds of feed consumed. This is known as the feed conversion ration.
The Pork Industry Hogs are very susceptible to diseases, many hogs are raised in “shower in shower out” operations.
The Pork Industry Workers and visitors must shower and put clothes provided by the producer, cuts down on transmission of diseases
The Sheep Industry Compared to beef and pork, Americans eat relatively little lamb and mutton. Lamb refers to meat from a sheep that is less than one year old.