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  1. Canada Chapter 8

  2. Canada’s Provinces • The Atlantic Provinces • Newfoundland and Labrador • Saint John’s • Prince Edward Island • Charlottetown • New Brunswick • Fredericton • Nova Scotia • Halifax

  3. Atlantic Provinces

  4. Video Questions • 1. What are the two major industries in the Atlantic Provinces? • 2. What group of Europeans were the first to land in the Atlantic Provinces? • 3. Who were the Acadians and what were they most interested in?

  5. Atlantic Provinces • Also known as the maritime provinces • Maritime = navigation or commerce on the sea • Two major industries – fishing and shipping • 75% of all fish caught in Canada comes from the Atlantic Provinces • Vikings – landed in Newfoundland in 1000 AD • French – settled in this region • Called region Acadia – French were referred to as Acadians • Looking for beaver fur • American Revolutionary War – British Loyalists fled to this region • Newfoundland is 95% British • Other Europeans – Scottish and Irish (culture similar to British Isles) • French Acadians left the area after the French and Indian War. Many of them went to Louisiana in the United States. (Cajun)

  6. Canada’s Provinces • The Two Big Provinces • Quebec • Quebec City • Ontario • Toronto Quebec and Ontario Picture from:

  7. Quebec

  8. Quebec • Largest province in Canada • 2nd most populated province • Settled by the French • Official language is French • Montreal is the 2nd largest French speaking city in the world • (1763) The French and Indian War resulted in this area being given to the British • Capital city is Quebec City • Largest city is Montreal – host of the 1976 Winter Olympics • Separatists (Francophones) want to break away from Canada to preserve their French culture or heritage • Held a referendum in 1980 and 1995 to see if Quebec would break away from the rest of Canada • Most people live along or close to the banks of the St. Lawrence River

  9. Vocabulary • Francophone – person who speaks French as his or her first language • separatist – people in Quebec who wanted to break away from the rest of Canada • Quiet Revolution – a peaceful change in the government of Quebec • Referendum – a vote in which the voters decide for a against an issue

  10. Quebec CityProvincial Capital

  11. Quebec City The French and British fought for control of this land in the French and Indian War. The French lost and control went to the British in 1763

  12. Quebec City • Located on the narrowest part of the St. Lawrence River • The cradle of French civilization in North America • Located in the region once explored by Jacques Cartier

  13. Quebec City • 18th Century buildings, narrow streets lined with old stone houses, and a European atmosphere make Quebec City a unique place to visit.

  14. Quebec City • Petit Champlain – the oldest shopping street in North America • Filled with restaurants and crafts shops

  15. Winter Carnival Picture from: Carnival

  16. Ice Hotel – Quebec City • Ice Hotel: Images

  17. Montreal

  18. MontrealNorth America’s Francophone metropolis • Largest city in Quebec • 40% of Quebec’s population lives in Montreal • 2nd largest French speaking city in the world

  19. MontrealHost of the 1976 Summer Olympics Olympic Stadium

  20. Picture from: Montreal

  21. Wealthiest province most populated province – 40% of Canada’s population lives in Ontario Home to the Canada’s capital city: Ottawa Borders all the Great Lakes except Lake Michigan The St. Lawrence Seaway is a series of locks and canals Center of manufacturing, service industries, and agriculture Almost all of Canada’s industrial cities are located in Ontario Provincial Capital: Toronto (Canada’s largest city) - access to the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway has made it an international center for trade Ontario

  22. American colonists who were loyal to Great Britain and relocated in Canada after the Revolutionary War Escaping persecution by colonists United Empire Loyalists Sir John Wentworth: governor of New Hampshire and later Nova Scotia

  23. a manufacturing region in Canada that follows the curve of the western shore of Lake Ontario Automobile manufacturing is Ontario’s major industry Golden Horseshoe Golden Horseshoe

  24. OttawaThe National Capital •

  25. Ottawa Parliament Hill

  26. TorontoCN Tower 2nd Tallest free standing structure in the world

  27. Niagara Falls • Horseshoe Falls • Located on the Ontario-New York border • Made of three separate waterfalls • Horseshoe Falls • American Falls • Bridal Veil Falls • Known for its beauty and for being a valuable source of hydroelectricity

  28. Niagara Falls

  29. Canada’s Provinces • The Prairie Provinces • Alberta • Edmonton • Saskatchewan • Regina • Manitoba • Winnipeg • The Atlas of Canada - Prairie Provinces

  30. Prairie Provinces • Canada’s Breadbasket • Major grain producing region • 90% of all wheat in Canada is grown here • Indigenous people once populated the land • Relied on buffalo • Railroad brought more Europeans who hunted the buffalo for sport • Alberta is still home to many indigenous people • South – farming North – deciduous forests

  31. Prairie Provinces • Edmonton, Alberta • Home to North America’s Largest Mall –West Edmonton Mall • The West Edmonton Mall has over 800 stores, 20 movie theatres, an amusement park and indoor water park, an NHL-size ice rink, a lake, casino, and a dolphin show. There are more than 100 places to eat and it is so big you can even rent electric scooters to scoot you around. • Nicknamed “Festival City”

  32. Native to a certain place Indigenous

  33. A natural resistance to disease immunity

  34. Totem Pole • a tall, carved wooden pole containing symbols

  35. boomtowns • A settlement that springs up quickly, often to serve the needs of miners

  36. Mountainous Province • Mountainous Province • British Colombia • Capital: Victoria • British Columbia British Columbia Picture from:

  37. British Columbia • Located next to the Pacific Ocean • Blocked off from the rest of Canada by the Rocky Mountains • Half covered in forests • Major natural resources: wildlife, timber, and minerals • Vancouver is an important port city • Coal, lumber, and paper products are leading exports • Vancouver’s mild climate is due to the warm breezes off the Pacific Coast • The harbors do not freeze allowing for ships to dock year round Image from Holiday Velvet

  38. Many Asians live in Vancouver – Chinatown developed Native Americans carved totem poles to represent families or clans Gold was discovered along the Fraser River bringing thousands of people to the region and creating boomtowns Today people of British Columbia feel more connected to the countries of the Pacific Rim than to the rest of Canada Image from Britannica

  39. Canadian Pacific Railroad • Began in 1881 • Designed to link Vancouver to the Eastern part of Canada • Travel between Montreal and Vancouver • Brought many immigrants to Canada • Helped to settle British Columbia

  40. It was dangerous to cross the continent by land It took too long to travel around the southern tip of South America Invention of the steam-powered locomotives brought about the transcontinental railroad Introductory Paragraph

  41. Canada’s Territories • Canada’s Three Territories • Yukon Territory • White Horse • Northwest Territory • Yellowknife • Nunavut • Iqaluit

  42. Territories • Make up 40% of Canada’s land • Less than 1% of the population • Canada’s highest mountain – Mount Logan (Yukon Territory) • Tundra • Gold brought people to this region – today zinc, lead, and copper are mined • Caribou is important for food, shelter and clothing • Nunavut was created in 1999 • Aurora Borealis – Northern Lights (video) Aerial view of an open pit mine in Canada’s Northwest Territorries Picture from:

  43. Tundra A cold, treeless plain Frozen almost year round Canada’s Tundra Region