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The Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles. Overview. Triple Entente: Losses. Britain :  750,000 soldiers killed; 1,500,000 wounded France : 1,400,000 soldiers killed; 2,500,000 wounded Belgium : 50,000 soldiers killed Italy : 600,000 soldiers killed Russia : 1,700,000 soldiers killed

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The Treaty of Versailles

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  1. The Treaty of Versailles Overview

  2. Triple Entente: Losses • Britain :  750,000 soldiers killed; 1,500,000 wounded • France : 1,400,000 soldiers killed; 2,500,000 wounded • Belgium : 50,000 soldiers killed • Italy : 600,000 soldiers killed • Russia : 1,700,000 soldiers killed • America : 116,000 soldiers killed • Canada : 60, 000 soldiers killed (The Treaty of Versailles)

  3. Triple Alliance: Losses Those who had fought against the Allies suffered heavy casualties as well: • Germany : 2,000,000 soldiers killed • Austria-Hungary : 1,200,000 soldiers killed • Turkey : 325,000 soldiers killed • Bulgaria : 100,000 soldiers killed (The Treaty of Versailles)

  4. Worldwide impact • The total deaths of all nations who fought in the war is thought to have been 8.5 million with 21 million being wounded.  (The Treaty of Versailles) • Europe had been devastated • In addition many towns had been destroyed • Infrastructure of cities needed to be rebuilt • The victors of WWI had no compunction about dealing with Germany harshly as the most culpable for the damages

  5. Images • Before and after: Photos from France • Ruins of Vaux • Ruins of Cantigny

  6. The Treaty of Versailles The terms of peace imposed on Germany after WW I Drafted at the Paris Peace Conference Signed near the French capital at Versailles, June 28th 1919 The intention was to weaken the German Empire so she would not be able to rebuild and pose a threat to the victor nations

  7. The Terms of the Treaty • Germany had to accept responsibility for the war • Dismantled the German Empire and redistributed lands (For example: Alsace-Lorraine was given to France, West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia were given to Poland and Germany had to relinquish rights to her colonies) • Required substantial financial reparations form the Germans (269 billion gold marks approximately $393.6 Billion US Dollars as of 2005) • Germany’s armed forces were reduced dramatically • This ultimatum if not accepted would result in invasion of Germany by Allied forces

  8. Canada and the Treaty of Versailles PM Sir Robert Borden led a successful fight for separate Dominion representation at the conference and separate signatures on the treaty. (Versailles, Treaty of) He believed passionately that Canada, with 60 000 war dead, had paid the price of such recognition. (Versailles, Treaty of) Canada was represented on the British Empire delegation, a fact that increased Canada's prestige and the opportunities for making its views known. (Versailles, Treaty of) Canada remained subordinate to Britain… but her emerging international personality had been recognized. (Versailles, Treaty of) The treaty also made provision for a LEAGUE OF NATIONS, providing another vehicle for the advancement of Canada's national status (Versailles, Treaty of)

  9. The Treaty of Versailles Primary Source Analysis Read each excerpt Identify the issue raised What reparation and/or change was expected from Germany

  10. Article 231 • The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies. (Treaty of Versailles: Articles and Annexes)

  11. Article 235 • In order to enable the Allied and Associated Powers to proceed at once to the restoration of their industrial and economic life, pending the full determination of their claims, Germany shall pay in such installments and in such manner (whether in gold, commodities, ships, securities or otherwise) as the Reparation Commission may fix, during 1919, 1920 and the first four months of 1921, the equivalent of 20,000,000,000 gold marks. Out of this sum the expenses of the armies of occupation subsequent to the Armistice of November 11, 1918, shall first be met, and such supplies of food and raw materials as may be judged by the Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers to be essential to enable Germany to meet her obligations for reparation may also, with the approval of the said Governments, be paid for out of the above sum. The balance shall be reckoned towards liquidation of the amounts due for reparation. Germany shall further deposit bonds as prescribed in paragraph 12 (c) Of Annex II hereto. (Treaty of Versailles: Articles and Annexes)

  12. Article 42-44 Article 42 • Germany is forbidden to maintain or construct any fortifications either on the left bank of the Rhine or on the right bank to the west of a line drawn 50 kilometres to the East of the Rhine. Article 43 • In the area defined above the maintenance and the assembly of armed forces, either permanently or temporarily, and military maneuvers of any kind, as well as the upkeep of all permanent works for mobilization, are in the same way forbidden. Article 44 • In case Germany violates in any manner whatever the provisions of Articles 42 and 43, she shall be regarded as committing a hostile act against the Powers signatory of the present Treaty and as calculated to disturb the peace of the world. (Treaty of Versailles: Articles and Annexes)

  13. Articles 119-120 Article 119 • Germany renounces in favour of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers all her rights and titles over her oversea possessions. Article 120 • All movable and immovable property in such territories belonging to the German Empire or to any German State shall pass to the Government exercising authority over such territories, on the terms laid down in Article 257 of Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty. The decision of the local courts in any dispute as to the nature of such property shall be final. (Treaty of Versailles: Articles and Annexes)

  14. Article 160 • By a date which must not be later than March 31, 1920, the German Army must not comprise more than seven divisions of infantry and three divisions of cavalry. • After that date the total number of effectives in the Army of the States constituting Germany must not exceed one hundred thousand men, including officers and establishments of depots. The Army shall be devoted exclusively to the maintenance of order within the territory and to the control of the frontiers. • The total effective strength of officers, including the personnel of staffs, whatever their composition, must not exceed four thousand. (Treaty of Versailles: Articles and Annexes)

  15. Germany’s Reaction • The Germans expected to be consulted by the Allies on the contents of the Treaty. • This did not happen and there was not much they could do about it. • The German representatives saw the terms of the treaty three weeks before they were due to sign it on June 28th 1919. • There was anger throughout Germany about the terms of the treaty being forced upon them and the treaty was called ” a Diktat” • As they had little choice, the Germans signed the treaty • Many Germans felt that all of Germany was being held accountable for the mistakes of its government (The Treaty of Versailles)

  16. Works Cited "First World War.com - Primary Documents - Treaty of Versailles: Articles 231-247 and Annexes." First World War.com - A multimedia history of World War One. 11 Jan. 2009 <http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/versailles231-247.htm>. "Great War "Before and After" Photos." The World War I Document Archive. 11 Jan. 2009 <http://www.gwpda.org/photos/before.htm>. "The Treaty of Versailles" History Learning Site::. 11 Jan. 2009 <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_versailles.htm>. "Versailles, Treaty of." The Canadian Encyclopedia. 11 Jan. 2009 <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008340>. The World War I Document Archive. 11 Jan. 2009 <http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin01/imag0048.jpg>. The World War I Document Archive. 11 Jan. 2009 <http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin01/imag0048.jpg>.

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