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Prevent Teach Reinforce PTR and PTR-YC. January 18, 2016 PAPBS Network Coaches Day.
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Prevent Teach Reinforce PTR and PTR-YC January 18, 2016 PAPBS Network Coaches Day
The mission of the Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network (PaTTAN) is to support the efforts and initiatives of the Bureau of Special Education, and to build the capacity of local educational agencies to serve students who receive special education services. PaTTAN’s Mission
Our goal for each child is to ensure Individualized Education Program (IEP) teams begin with the general education setting with the use of Supplementary Aids and Services before considering a more restrictive environment. PDE’s Commitment to Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
What is Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR)? • A standardized FBA/BIP process • Developed by Iovannone et al. (2009) • Evidence-based practice
How is PTR (YC) Different from Traditional FBA? • Collaborative approach • Facilitated by person with expertise in ABA principles and FBA/BIPs • Input systematically gathered from all team members • Behavior interventions selected from menu with facilitator ensuring link to hypothesis • Behavior intervention task analyzed and matched to teacher feasibility and skills • Coaching teacher to implement support plan is a part of the process • Fidelity measures developed and collected • Problem-solving/decision-making based on data guidelines.
Universal Classroom Practices • 1. Use 5:1 ratio of positive to negative/neutral attention • 2. Use predictable and comprehensible schedules • 3. Use routines within routines to heighten predictability • 4. Teach behavioral expectations directly • 5. Teach peer-related social skills
General Steps to the Process • Teaming and Goal Setting • Establishing Practical Data Collection • Functional Behavioral Assessment • Developing and Implementing the Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) • Coaching and Fidelity • Follow up: Data-based Decision Making: Next Steps.
PTR (YC) Process Before 1st Meeting: • Determine relevant team members • Person with knowledge of the child/student (teacher(s), related services, wrap-around, paraprofessional, PARENT) • Facilitator: someone with knowledge of functional assessment, behavioral principles (PTR consultant, school-based consultant) • Someone with knowledge of the context and resources (administrator or designee)
PTR (YC) Process • Goal Setting: • Identify behaviors of greatest concern to the team and possible replacement behaviors (teach) • Prioritize and operationalize behaviors targeted for intervention
Practical Data Collection • Data are primarily used to monitor progress. • It is not possible to collect accurate data on every challenging behavior exhibited. • Data must be collected. • Data must be reasonably accurate, reliable and valid.
Practical Data Collection • Team identifies data to collect (based on goals identified by team) using behavior rating scales or frequency counts. • Data collection method identified (what, when, how, and who) • Data collection needs to be easy for classroom staff to collect, as accurate as possible and measure what it is intended to measure.
Behavior Rating Scale Steps • Define the target behavior • Determine the most important dimension of the behavior * • Determine when the behavior will be observed • Develop the anchors for the rating scale* • Determine who is responsible for recording the data • Determine where the records will be located and maintained.
Functional Behavior Assessment • PTR Assessment (FBA) • Prevent: antecedents/triggers of problem behavior • Teach: functions of problem behavior, possible replacement behaviors • Reinforce: consequences associated with problem behavior, possible reinforcers • Assessment form completed • Facilitator summarizes input so the team can draft hypothesis • Facilitator has conducted at least ONE direct observation of student and context prior to this step
PTR Intervention Plan • Behavior interventions selected by team from menu • 3 categories of interventions (prevent, teach, reinforce) • Plans include at least 1 intervention from each category • Team provides description on how interventions will look in the classroom • Facilitator guides the team/teacher using ABA principles to develop most effective intervention that matches the team/teacher context • Each intervention selected is described in detail by task-analyzing steps, providing scripts, describing adult behaviors, NOT student behaviors
After Plan is Developed… • Time is scheduled to train team/teacher on implementation strategies • Plans for training students and other relevant individuals • Support provided once plan is implemented
Writing the Intervention Plan • Task analyze each step • Be very explicit • Example:
Coaching/Fidelity • Teacher and Staff Training • Coaching/Fidelity Checklist • Behavior plans must be implemented consistently and accurately if they are to be effective. • Transfer plan onto the Fidelity Form • Schedule time to observe. • Provide feedback and time to problem solve.
Progress Monitoring • Data-Based Problem-Solving • What is working/not working? • What changes are needed? • Is more data needed? • Implementation Fidelity Data • Is the plan being implemented consistently and accurately? • Student Outcome Data • Is problem behavior decreasing? Is replacement behavior increasing? • Next steps decisions based on data: • Expand the plan/generalize • Intensify the plan • Fade components • Identify other behaviors to address • Gather more information to analyze the problem
Julia Slater firstname.lastname@example.org Natalie Sokol email@example.com Contact Information www.pattan.net Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Tom Wolf, Governor