LEARNING STYLES AND STUDY STRATEGIES AREACHon-line STUDENT SUCCESS SEMINAR 2009 ( Your success is our goal ! )
At the conclusion of this seminar students will. . . • Know their preferred learning style • Choose from proven specific study strategies for diverse teaching styles • Organize, reinforce and rehearse for long-term memory • Use a variety of proven study strategies for effectiveness and efficiency
LEARNING INVOLVES. . . 1 2 3 . . . three processes of memory.
ENCODING Def.: Taking information in through the senses Def. ENCODING STORAGE RETRIEVAL
(Our Senses!) WE ENCODE USING:
STORAGE De : Filing information away in the brain; putting information in short- or long- term memory Def. 2 3 1 ENCODING STORAGE RETRIEVAL
STORING INFORMATION *AKA “Working Memory” Short-term memory* only 6-9 pieces of information limited time period Long-term memory unlimited amount of information unlimited time period
STORE INFORMATION IN LONG TERM MEMORY By . . . • ORGANIZING • REINFORCING • REHEARSING
Organize • Arrange information in a meaningful way. • Order information logically, sequentially.
Reinforce • Make associations • Make connections • Distribute study
Rehearse Practice information using . . . • Concept mapping • Concept cards • Timelines • Charts
Rehearse • Question/Answer • Outlining • Summarizing • A study guide
RETRIEVAL Def. : Pulling information from storage when needed, then returning info to storage for future reference. Def. 1 2 3 ENCODING STORAGE RETRIEVAL
R E T R I E V A L USING INFO, THEN RETURNING TO STORAGE TAKING INFO OUT OF STORAGE
LEARNING STYLES INCLUDE... Visual Tactile/ Kinesthetic Auditory and their combinations.
Your preferred learning style determines. . . How you choose to remember info How youchooseto approach a class How you chooseto organize info How you choose to assure memory
Knowing your style… Visual Auditory Tactile/Kinesthetic ...can help you develop an integrated approach ...can help you understand how to assist your memory.
What is Your Learning Style? TAKE THE "LEARNING STYLES" INVENTORY
LEARNING STYLE INVENTORY Place “X” on the line in front of the choice which best describes your preference. 1. I prefer to learn by ___ a. reading a textbook . ___b. listening to a lecture. 2. I prefer to learn by ___ a. watching a demonstration. ___ b. listening to an explanation. 3. I like to read maps. ___ a. true. ___ b. false. 4. Listening to a lecture ___ a. I take many notes. ___ b. I take few notes. 5. I remember people’s ___ a. faces, but forget their names. ___ b. names but forget their faces. 6. I don’t mind studying with noise in the background. ___ a. false. ___ b. true. 7. I like a classroom seat from which I can ___ a. see what’s going on ___ b. hear what is said. 8. Graphs, charts and diagrams ___ a. are interesting to me. ___ b. confuse me. _______ The “a” responses are usually checked by visual learners, and the “b” responses by auditory learners. If you checked about the same number of visual and auditory responses, you tend to prefer visual and auditory methods of learning about equally.
Place “X” on the line in front of the statements that describe you . ___ 1. If I bought a new iPod, I would probably try to figure out how it works by playing with it rather than by reading the directions. ___ 2. I prefer a job that keeps me on my feet, moving from place to place, rather than one that gives me a chance to sit most of the time. ___ 3. The best part of studying sciences is doing experiments in a lab. ___ 4. Engineering and construction work interest me. ___ 5. I usually don’t enjoy sitting in a classroom listening to a lecture. ___ 6. I like to cook meals. ___ 7. I get great enjoyment from typing or using a computer. ___ 8. When I was in grade school, I could usually find an excuse to get up and move around the room. ___ 9. When I’m in an airplane, I prefer to sit on the aisle so I can get up when I want rather than sit by a window so I can see out. ___ 10. When I study, I need to take frequent breaks. Most students check 4 or 5 of these statements; if you checked 7 or more of them, you are strongly oriented toward learning kinesthetically.
Visual Learner? • Pay close attention to diagrams, charts, maps, etc. • Use colors, arrows, and symbols when annotating or marking text • Create a concept map of the information • Turn visuals into words
Auditory Learner? • Tape lectures • Read notes out loud • Network through study groups • Discuss concepts with an “auditory” friend/classmate • Create test questions; answer them out loud
Tactile/Kinesthetic? Tune in to real-life examples Discuss notes with another “K” person Role-play questions and answers Move around when studying or rehearsing Use gestures to reinforce learning!
The more senses you involve in the learning, the more permanent the learning will be.
Use a system for reading textbooks.
SQ4R Before reading During reading After reading S=Survey Q=Question R1=Read R2=wRite R3=Recite R4=Review
P D R PLAN TO READ DO THE READING REVIEW WHAT YOU READ McGrath, Jane L. Building Strategies for College Reading, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2005.
The BCAs • BEFORE you read • C ONNECTING while you read • AFTER reading Nist, Sherrie and William Diehl. Developing Textbook Thinking, 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005.
All emphasize... • Before reading activities (Preview) • During reading activities (Reflect and connect) • After reading activities (Follow up)
Mark Textbooks Develop your own system of markings; be consistent! • Read with pen in hand • Turn headings into questions • Read a section at a time • Note key points in margin • Circle key terms
Mark Textbooks Mark examples Mark items likely to be on a test Connect related ideas (use arrows) Number sequential points Summarize graphic organizers
Annotate in the Margins Pay attention to . . . • Names, dates, and events • Definitions of content-specific • terms • Relationships: cause/effect; compare/contrast • Theories, hypotheses, etc. • Functions, properties, • characteristics, lists • Examples
E X A M P L E , Cornell Note-Taking These are my notes. Lecture: The Great Depression Jan. 16, 1995 and the New Deal Cue Column Recall --Stock market crash of 1929 In 1929, the N.Y. Stock Exchange lost more than $10 billion. 10/29/29 most disastrous trading day in history of market. Financial consequences from Next 3 years: from 1929-1932 100,000 workers fired per week 1929—2 million unemployed 1930—4 mil. 1931—8 mil. 1932—12 mil. 5,000 banks and 9 mill. Savings acct. wiped out Tens of thousands of mortgages foreclosed. 40% of all families had income under $1,500 “Hoovervilles” More than 1 mil. Homeless “Hoovervilles” (homeless camps) symbolized the depth of depression FDR and New Deal economics 1933: FDR took office w/unemployment at 13 mil. FDR created New Deal economics Focused on: 6 reforms 1) cheapening dollar to reduce burden of debts & stimulate exports Note: event, date (Cause/effect relationship) (Terms & meanings) Characteristics of New Deal) *Adapted fromJeanne Shay Schumm and Shawn A. Post, Executive Learning: Strategies for College Reading and Studying. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Prentice Hall, 1997.
Rehearsal aids help you retain and recall information: • Concept cards • Concept maps • Timelines • Charts: cause/effect; • compare/contrast
Question/Answer strategy • (Informal) outlines • Summaries • Study Guides
DISTRIBUTE STUDY • 15 minutes per day EVERY day • EVERY class (minimum) • As soon after class as possible • A quiet place—minimal distractions • Use ORR and the 5Rs
Use the “5Rs” R1: Record= take notes R2: Reduce=weed out; synthesize R3: Recite= talk through remaining info—aloud R4: Reflect= think about the info; make connections R5: Review= monitor your recall and understanding
O.R.R. • Organize • Reinforce • Rehearse W H Y ?
Why? To LEARN the material (because CRAMMING is ineffective! !)
FinalWords Knowing your learning style preference can help you choose classes and professors. Venture outside your comfort zone; strengthen weaker areas while capitalizing on your strengths. Use appropriate styles/strategies for different class types--lecture, lab and seminar. The more time you spend in study, the more integrated your learning style should become “Success is always within your reach if you extend your grasp.”