The Process Model 组员：刘泮、于希瑶、洪叶、 黄智超、纪钧鹏、李嫚、刘文龙
About HPT Models ——刘文龙
Where are the HPT Models come from • Modeling has traditionally been an integral part of the instructional design process. • Because many of the practitioners of HPT came from the field of instructional technology. • So it is not surprising that HPT process modeling has migrated and evolved from that area. • ——from Frank S.Wilmoth
Classification of Models • Diagnostic model informs the performance analyst where HPT can be applied. • Process model instructs the performance analyst on how HPT can be applied. • Holistic model. It is a separated group because of its nonlinear form and unique modeling characteristics. • This model is represented by overlapping domains that exist separately, and those form an ideal performance zone when combined.
Outline • What is PT? • IT/PT Process Comparison • Performance Technology Process Model and its example
What is PT • “performance technology does not have a specific content area which belongs to it and it alone, but is a systematic process...... • Instructional technology Organizational development Motivation and feedback Human factors engineering Employee selection”
PT Process Model and its case Figure 1. Performance process model
In this model, the assessment/analysis and the design steps each become a two phase process: • Macro and micro levels
Case study: Turnover of personnel • The story of Unit X • Process steps
Intervention selection itself Performance analysis cause analysis
Tools and techniques: Existing organization information Interviews Focus groups Observations with experts Customers Suppliers Exemplary Typical performers objective: To determine what interventions, or combination of interventions, would most effectively and efficiently move the actual performance level toward the desired performance level, thus significantly reducing or eliminating the performance gap
objective: Cause analysis is critical to the application of performance technology because it enables us to look ”under” the performance gap to discover its “roots.” then, we select intervention(s) that are most appropriate to both feed the high-performance roots and eliminate the roots that caused the performance gap.
11 excellent interventions design principles 1.Design should be based on a comprehensive understanding of the situation. 2.Interventions should be carefully targeted. 3.An intervention should have a sponsor. 4.Intervention should be designed with a team approach. 5.Intervention design should be cost-sensitive. 6.Intervention should be designed on the basis of comprehensive, prioritized requirements. 7.Intervention options should be investigated. 8.Interventions should be sufficiently powerful. 9.Intervention should be sustainable. 10.Interventions should be designed with development and implementation in mind 11.Interventions should be designed With an iterative approach.
Interventions can be categorized into four major areas 1.Human resource development 2.Organization development 3.Human resource management 4.Environmental engineering
Critical to successful implementation of a performance technology intervention is change management. Attitude change in move from change avoidance to change acceptance.
This is where the value of the intervention is illustrated as we look to determine its impact on performance improvement 4 levels of evaluation: 1.Reaction 2.Learnming or capablility 3.Transfer 4.Results
The major theme: • Training alone seldom solves performance problems. • Instructional interventions and other performance interventions relate to each other. • Instructional interventions and other performance interventions all evolve through a similar process .
Conclusion: • the integration of instructional and non- instructional interventions. • It differs from other similar models.
Pershing’s Process Model • Why arethere so many HPT model ? • Why has the field not settled on one model ? In his judgment, the answer is threefold • the ways organizations operate and are managed have changed • Different organizations, Different needs. • Academics and independent consultants build models for self-promotion and as a marketing device.
Performance-Improvement Model • Perception Analysis
Performance-Improvement Model • Two Questions • How is a performance analyst to know which needs are important and deserve attention? • Who has the correct perspective? • For the performance analyst the key to this dilemma is found in the process of perception analysis. • Perception analysis uses three guiding questions to reveal three important aspects of the need: who, how, and why?
Performance-Improvement Model • Strategic Alignment • with Organizational Mission, Goals and Objectives
Performance-Improvement Model • Performance Analysis
Performance-Improvement Model • Intervention Selection
Performance-Improvement Model • Feasibility Analysis
Performance-Improvement Model • Design, Development, and Implementation
Performance-Improvement Model • Evaluation and Feedback
There are five general characteristics that help to identify process models.
2. The use of phased or grouped activities. Most process models detail a number of related activities that achieve a unified goal that represent one step in the process.
GAP 3. Gap analysis is central to many process models. Desired workforce performance Actual state of workforce performance
4. Many process models focus on performance interventions as a crucial step in the HPT process. • Most process models describe different forms and arrangement of interventions that may be considered when deciding how best to close the performance gap.
5. The existence of a feedback loop • The result of this evaluation can be the restarting of the process at one of the first steps in the model.
Summary of the characteristics of the process models: • Process Models were linear. • had phased or grouped activities. • sought out performance gaps. • considered multiple intervention possibilities. • evaluated results with an appropriate feedback loop.