Module 2.4 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

module 2 4 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Module 2.4 PowerPoint Presentation
play fullscreen
1 / 21
Module 2.4
110 Views
Download Presentation
calvine
Download Presentation

Module 2.4

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Module 2.4 Characteristics of Standard Applications Software and Application Areas

  2. Custom-Written v Off-The-Shelf Software • Off-The-Shelf Software • Advantages: • Cheaper than custom-written – purchase price is a one off cost • Already been tested • Choice of makes • Immediately available - no time delay in implementing • Support from a variety of sources: • Internet sites • Newsgroups • Books, etc • Disadvantages: • Large Memory footprint • Many features not required • Not completely suited to purpose

  3. Custom-Written v Off-The-Shelf Software • Custom-Written Software • Advantages: • Meets Purpose exactly • Small hard disk footprint compared to off-the-shelf • Specialist Backup • Source Code • Disadvantages: • More expensive than off-the shelf • Likely to have mistakes in code which will cost money • Not immediately available • Very limited overall backup and support – no books, etc

  4. Common Features of Software • HTML Editing Package: • Buttons • Ability to view HTML source • Tables and Layout • Frames • Insert text and graphics • Cascading Style Sheets • Database links for dynamic pages • Templates and wizards • Form elements – text boxes, options buttons, etc • Background images • Cookies • Import and export facilities

  5. Common Features of Software • Word Processor • Spellcheck/Grammar Check and Thesaurus • Headers, footers and footnotes • Tables • Text Formatting • Columns • Clipart • Bullets and Numbering • Tables of contents, indexes • Templates and styles • Import and Export facilities • Mail merge • Autotext

  6. Common Features of Software • Spreadsheet • Rows and Columns • Graphs • Import and Export facilities • Text editing • Functions (formulae) • Pivot tables • Macros • Form controls • Worksheets/workbooks • Sequencing of data • Relative and absolute formulae • Goal seeking

  7. Common Features of Software • Database • Graphs • Reports • Import and Export of data • Search and sort data • Calculations on data • Validation routines • Macros and form controls • Programming capability • Text editing • Clipart • Wizards

  8. Common Features of Software • Presentation Software • Text formatting • Clipart/pictures • Slide transition • Automated use (kiosk application) • Styles and templates • Animation • Macros and form controls • Standalone use without parent application • Import and export facilities – web integration

  9. Common Features of Software • Graphics Package • Import and export routines • Resize of image and colour depth • Graphics tools – brush, line, colour, fill, etc • Variety of brush effects • Cut copy and paste images • Layering of images • Transparency • Masking of parts of the image • Integration with hardware – cameras, scanners, etc

  10. Common Features of Software • Desk Top Publishing • Text editing • Import and export facilities • Gridlines to position objects • Working area off the page • Wizards and templates • Text formatting around images and objects • Creation of booklets • Tables and columns

  11. Common Features of Software • E-mail • Import and export routines • Sort and search e-mails • Database of contacts • Multiple messages (including cc (carbon copy)) • Reply facility • Attachments • Web integration • Text formatting – templates

  12. Common Features of Software • Diary • Different views of calendars – week, month, year • Add multiple/repeating events • Alarms for events • Carry dates across years • Categorise entries by type - personal, work, etc • Share selected parts of diary with colleagues

  13. Macros • Definition: • A sequence of instructions defined as a single element. When a macro is called the sequence of instructions is used • Advantages • Time is saved as one instruction can run an entire sequence • Errors are reduced as the instructions are run automatically and are the same every time • Allow a limited degree of programmability to applications to make them more efficient for their environment - customisation • Disadvantages • Rely on the same starting point • Require technical expertise to write and debug

  14. Templates • Definition: • A template is a page that has been set up with a specific layout and text formatting prior to use • Advantage • Formal layout which others can fill in • Consistent application of styles • Disadvantages • Limited to the template • If changed only changes subsequent documents, not previous ones. • What does a template cover • Formatting – font size, colour, style • Page formatting – margins, size, layout • Inserting text – standard words, date time, etc • Graphics – standard logo, correct position

  15. Wizards • Definition: • Automatic creation of preset templates using guidance from user • By asking the user some questions, a wizard provides help in making the best use of the available facilities • Advantages • Speed with which tasks are completed • Different formats to choose from • User friendly approach to creating a complex document/application • Disadvantages • User is unable to deviate from the template without experience • Similarity of appearance to other documents/applications • Limited by options available in wizard

  16. Style Sheets • Definition: • A set of guidelines stating how text should be formatted in specific situations – for example, headings must be Times New Roman, size 30, Bold and Centered • Advantages • Known format saves time and errors and gives unified approach to documents • Styles can be used to create tables of contents and indexes • Disadvantages • You may apply the style but not wish it to be used in a table of contents • It is easy to change the appearance of a style and later the appearance of a document

  17. Tailoring Generic Applications • Templates give a standard format – very useful for corporations requiring a unified approach to documents • Remove the possibility of choice from users • Saves time by providing base document (e.g. lawyers letters) • Macros can be used to format documents in a specified way, or add required information to all documents – headers and footers for example • User can add required information with the click of a single button • Can be used to take information from the user and create templates based on answers

  18. Consistent Style • Consistent Style: • Different documents can be identified by their style: Memo, appointment, redundancy letter, etc • Unified approach to members of the public – professional impression • Information will not be missed off if a style is followed • Headed paper can be used • Corporation colour scheme utilised • Team of designers is paid to develop the consistent style – waste of money if not followed • Different people can work on parts of the same document and use the same style, thus allowing integration of several documents from different teams in the same presentation

  19. Tailored System Interface • Buttons, forms, menus and macros: • Buttons can take the user to the specified page or run the selected action – buttons to sort, search, add, delete, etc • Menus allow the user to choose their actions – they limit and direct the user to selected options • Forms: items include drop down boxes for data selection, option buttons, automatically fill in boxes - enter postcode and town, street and county appear, jump to first letter entered in a drop down box, etc • Benefits: • User entry is simplified leading to less mistakes and better use of time • For novice users, the system is uncomplicated and they are unlikely to make mistakes • Problems: • If they go wrong, many problems result. • Starting point may not always be the same • Option may not be on the menu or button

  20. Different File Types • Necessity: • Different applications store different information in different formats • The operating system knows what program to start up when you double click the file • Different file types store different information – database, spreadsheet, etc • Use of file: is the information within the file important or the presentation of the information • Relative advantages: • Text files: RTF and TXT is readable by most applications • Databases: CSV and TSV are standard database and spreadsheet files • Graphics: JPG, PNG, GIF, BMP are standard formats