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High Energy Neutrino Astronomy

High Energy Neutrino Astronomy. Status and perspectives of the high energy neutrino observatories. Paolo Piattelli, INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud Catania. Layout of the talk. High Energy Neutrino Astronomy Scientific motivations Experimental techniques

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High Energy Neutrino Astronomy

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  1. High Energy Neutrino Astronomy Status and perspectives of the high energy neutrino observatories Paolo Piattelli, INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud Catania

  2. Layout of the talk • High Energy Neutrino Astronomy • Scientific motivations • Experimental techniques • Status of the presently active neutrino detector projects • The currently active neutrino detectors: Baikal and Amanda • The ongoing projects: Antares, Nestor, Nemo • What comes next • The km3 at the South Pole: IceCube • The km3 in the Mediterranean sea: KM3NeT • Conclusions and outlook

  3. Why neutrino astronomy? • Neutrinos traverse space without being deflected or attenuated • They point back to their sources • They allow to view into dense environments • They allow to investigate the Universe over cosmological distances • Neutrinos are produced in high energy hadronic processes • They can allow distinction between hadronic and leptonic acceleration mechanisms • Neutrinos could be produced in Dark Matter annihilation

  4. protons E>1019 eV (10 Mpc) neutrinos gamma rays (0.01 - 1 Mpc) protons E<1019 eV Particle propagation in the Universe Cosmic accelerator High energy particles > 1017 eV 1 parsec (pc) = 3.26 light years (ly) Photons are absorbed on dust and radiation Protons are deviated by magnetic fields Extremely high energy protons interact with background radiation Only neutrinos are direct

  5. Particle astrophysics with  telescopes

  6. Neutrino production • Proton interactions • p  p (SNR,X-Ray Binaries) • p   (AGN, GRB, microQSO) • decay of pions and muons Neutrino production in cosmic accelerators • Proton acceleration • Fermi mechanism • proton spectrum dNp/dE ~E-2 Astrophysical jet Particle accelerator F. Halzen electrons are responsible for gamma fluxes (synchrotron, IC)

  7. Upgoing and horizontal muon tracks are neutrino signatures Principles of neutrino astronomy Neutrino telescopes search for muon tracks induced by neutrino interactions The downgoing atmospheric  flux overcomes by several orders of magnitude the expected  fluxes induced by  interactions. On the other hand, muons cannot travel in rock or water more than  50 km at any energy

  8. Principles of neutrino astronomy Flux estimate  need km3 scale detectors ~5000 PMT Cherenkov light neutrino muon neutrino

  9. The HE neutrino telescope world map 80’s: DUMAND R&D 90’s: BAIKAL, AMANDA, NESTOR 2k’s: ANTARES, NEMO R&D 2010: ICECUBE Mediterranean KM3 ? BAIKAL Pylos Mediterranean km3 DUMAND La Seyne Capo Passero AMANDA ICECUBE

  10. ANTARES NESTOR NEMO 2400m 3400m 3800:4000 m A closer look at the Mediterranean Sea

  11. Baikal 192 OM arranged in 8 strings, 72 m height effective area >2000 m2 (E>1 TeV) 3600 m 1366 m • Successfully running since 10 years • Atmospheric neutrino flux measured • Further upgrades planned, but km3 hardly reachable

  12. below horizon: mostly atmospheric  959 events above horizon: mostly fake events The AMANDA  sky map Amanda AMANDA-II 19 strings 677 OMs Depth 1500-2000m Optical Module Effective Area  104 m2 (E TeV) Angular resolution  2°

  13. string based detector • 12 lines • 900 PMTs • 2400 m deep a storey 14.5 m 350 m 40 km to shore 100 m Junction Box ~70 m Submarine links Anchor/line socket The ANTARES neutrino telescope

  14. ANTARES status and realization plan • 2003: Deployment and operation of two prototype lines • Several months of data taking • Technical problems(broken fiber, water leak) no precise timing, no m reconstruction. • Early 2005: 2 upgradedprototype lines • Mid-2005: Line 1 • 2007: Detector completed

  15. NESTOR • Tower based detector • Up- and downward looking PMTs • 3800 m deep • Dry connections • First floor (reduced size) with 12 PMTs deployed and operated in 2003

  16. NEMO The NEMO Collaboration has dedicated special efforts in: • development of technologies for the km3 (technical solutions chosen by small scale demostrators are not directly scalable to a km3) • search, characterization and monitoring of a deep sea site adequate for the installation of the Mediterranean km3 (Capo Passero near Catania, depth 3400 m) Modular detector concept based on semi-rigid structures 16 storey towers with 4 OM per storey 20 m storey length 40 m spacing between storeys Underwater connections

  17. joint joint joint NEMO Phase 1 project Multidisciplinary laboratory (will host an on-line underwater seismic station of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) SN-1 Drop cable 2 5.220 m 2.330 m Double Armed Cable BU 20.595 m Single Armed Cable Drop cable 1 5.000 m • Realization of a detector subsystem including all critical components • Site infrastructures at 2000 m already realized 30 km offshore Catania • Project completely funded by INFN and MIUR • Completion foreseen in 2006 NEMO Phase 1 Lab Long term tests for: underwater connections, electronics, mechanical structures, optical and acoustic detectors.

  18. The Catania Test Site and ESONET The NEMO test site in Catania will also host SN-1 a deep sea station for on-line seismic and environmental monitoring by INGV. The NEMO test site will be the Italian site for ESONET (European Seafloor Observatory NETwork). Deployment january 2005

  19. NEMO Phase 2 A deep water station at the Capo Passero site PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURE • Shore station at Portopalo di Capo Passero to host the power system the data acquisition and detector integration facilities • 100 km electro optical cable • Underwater infrastructures (main junction box) • Two intermediate connection stations in shallow and medium deep waters for interdisciplinary activities (agreement with INGV and SACLANTCen)

  20. ICECUBE The technology for underice detectors is well established. The next step is the construction of the km3 detector ICECUBE. • 80 strings (60 PMT each) • 4800 10” PMT (only downward looking) • 125 m inter string distance • 16 m spacing along a string • Instrumented volume: 1 km3 (1 Gton) • First string to be deployed in january 2005

  21. Status of the IceCube project • many reviews – international and within the U.S. - strongly emphasize the exciting science which can be performed with IceCube • in Jan 2004, the U.S. Congress approved the NSF budget including the full IceCube MRE • significant funding approved also in Belgium, Germany and Sweden • in Feb 2004, NSF conducted a baseline review  “go ahead” • deployment over 6 years IceCube strings IceTop tanks 4 8 Jan 2005 16 32 Jan 2006 32 64 Jan 2007 50 100 Jan 2008 68 136 Jan 2009 80 160 Jan 2010 From O. Botner, Neutrino 2004

  22. Do we need two km3 detectors? • There are strong scientific motivations that suggest to install two neutrino telescopes in opposite hemispheres : • Full sky coverage • The Universe is not isotropic at z<<1, observation of transient phenomena • Galactic Center only observable from Northern Hemisphere The most convenient location for the Northern km3 detector is the Mediterranean Sea: vicinity to infrastructures good water quality good weather conditions for sea operations

  23. 1.5  sr common view per day ICECUBE QSO TeV sources Sky coverage Galactic centre Mediterranean km3 Galactic coordinates

  24. KM3NeT: a Design Study for the km3 The experience and know how of the ANTARES, NESTOR and NEMO collaborations is merging in the KM3-NET activity • Collaboration of 8 Countries, 34 Institutions • Aim to design a deep-sea km3-scale observatory for high energy neutrino astronomy and an associated platform for deep-sea science • Request for funding for 3 years Astroparticle Physics Physics Analysis System and Product Engineering Information Technology Shore and deep-sea structure Sea surface infrastructure WORK PACKAGES Risk Assessment Quality Assurance Resource Exploration Associated Science A Technical Design Report (including site selection) for a Cubic kilometre Detector in the Mediterranean

  25. Objectives and scopes of the KM3NeT DS Establish path from current projects to the KM3 • Critical review of current technical solutions • Thorough tests of new developments • Comparative studies of sites and recommendation on site choice • Assessment of quality control and assurance • Exploration of possible cooperation with industry • Investigation of funding and governance models Expected outcome In three years a complete Technical Design Report for the KM3 will be produced

  26. Exploitation model of the future KM3 facility Goal: facility exploited in multi-user and interdisciplinary environment • Reconstructed data will be made available to the whole community • Observation of specific objects with increased sensitivity will be offered • Close relation to space and ground based observatories will be established (alerts for GRBs, Supernovae, etc…) • “Plug-and-play solutions for detectors of associated science

  27. Associated science • Great interest in long term deep-sea measurements in many different scientific communities: • Marine biology • Ocenography • Environmental science • Geology and geophysics • … • Substantial cross-links to ESONET (the European Sea Floor Observatory Network) • Plan: include the associated science communities in the design phase to understand and react to their needs and make use of their expertise (e.g. site exploration)

  28. Actions in the new I3 proposal • Networking • A collaboration between the european projects (Antares, Nestor, Nemo) has been already established with KM3NeT) • Increase collaboration with other neutrino projects (Baikal, Amanda, IceCube) • Develop collaborations with gamma ray and space based observatories • Other common fields of interest may be: massive computer simulations, development of common databases and source catalogues, development of computing and analysis tools • JRAs • Overlap with KM3NeT should be avoided • Development of new detection methods for future neutrino detectior projects (radio detection, acoustic detection, …) • Transnational access • All the european existing projects can provide access for interdisciplinary studies as the future KM3NeT will do

  29. Conclusions • Baikal and Amanda have demonstrated the feasibility of the high energy neutrino detection • Three projects in the Mediterranean are under way: • Antares and Nestor are currently under construction (first data taken) • NEMO is pursuing R&D for technical solutions for the km3 • All three collaborations together in a common effort towards the km3 • To fully exploit neutrino astronomy we need 2 km3 scale detectors, one for each emisphere: • IceCube is starting construction soon and will be completed by 2010 • KM3NeT aims at producing a complete Technical Design Report in 2008

  30. Remarks on EU applications Lessons learned with the successful KM3NeT experience (from Uli Katzt, KM3NeT coordinator) • The EU applies rather stringent and formal rules. These rules are not laws of nature - so physicists tend to ignore them! • Writing proposals: • Take the evaluation criteria seriously: • European added value • Scientific and technological excellence • Relevance of the objectives of the scheme • Quality of the management • Read all available EU documentation and learn “EUish” • Evaluation process • Well structured and transparent from inside … • … but completely opaque from the outside! • It helps a lot to take part in the EU evaluations

  31. End of presentation

  32. Next slides are spares

  33. Rate (kHz) 10min 10min time (s) ANTARES: first deep sea data • Rate measurements: Strong fluctuation of bioluminescence background observed Constant baseline ratefrom 40K decays

  34. ANTARES: long term measurements baseline rate (kHz) baseline rate = 15-minute average burst fraction burst fraction = time fraction above1.2 x baseline rate time • Also measured: current velocity and direction, line heading and shape, temperatures, humidities, ... • Important input for preparation & optimization of ANTARES operation.

  35. NESTOR: reconstruction of muon tracks • Track reconstruction using arrival times of light at PMs. • Ambiguities resolved using signal amplitudes in up/down PM pairs. PM calibration

  36. ANTARES NESTOR NEMO 2400m 3400m 3800:4000 m The HE neutrino telescope world map 80’s: DUMAND R&D 90’s: BAIKAL, AMANDA, NESTOR 2k’s: ANTARES, NEMO R&D 2010: ICECUBE Mediterranean KM3 ? BAIKAL Pylos Mediterranean km3 DUMAND La Seyne Capo Passero AMANDA ICECUBE

  37. Scientific goals • Astronomy via high energy neutrino observation • Production of high energy neutrinos in the universe (acceleration mechanisms, top-down scenarios, …) • Investigation of the nature of astrophysical objects • Origin of high energy cosmic rays • Indirect search for Dark Matter • New discoveries • Associated science

  38. NEMO Phase 1 project A step towards the km3 detector • Realization of a detector subsystem including all critical components • Site infrastructures at 2000 m already realized 30 km offshore Catania UNDERWATER LAB SHORE LABORATORY EO CABLE Length – 25 km 10 Optical Fibres ITU- T G-652 6 Electrical Conductors  4 mm2 Project completely funded (jointly by INFN and MIUR) Completion foreseen in 2006

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