Content: • 1. Letter-To-Sound Rules 1: Single Vowel Letters( vowel digraphs) • 2. Letter-To-Sound Rules 2: Graphic Position of Vowel-Letters • 3. Laxing Rules
1. Letter-To-Sound Rules: Single Vowel Letters Why do plain-tense vowels have broken-tense and plain-lax vowels broad-lax counterparts? What do we call these rules?
Pre-R Breaking: Plain-tense vowels may not stand before r, and are replaced by their broken counterparts in this position Pre-R Broadening: Plain-lax vowels are replaced by their broad counterparts before r
Practice Place the following words into the chart. 1. bacon 13. post 2. parent 14. glory 3. cat 15. gone 4. start 16. nor 5. previous 17. music 6. hero 18. during 7. very 19. punish 8. her 20. surface 9. kind 10. pirate 11. mirror 12. affirm
2. Letter-To-Sound Rules:GraphicPosition of Vowel-Letters • graphic position of a vowel-letter: the letters that follow it in spelling • two types: free and covered What do <V>, <C>, <#> and <SLV> refer to?
Covered position rule: “If a stressed single vowel-letter stands in covered graphic position, it is pronounced lax” (Covered vowels are lax) • Free position basic rule:“If a stressed single vowel-letter stands in free graphic position, it is pronounced tense, unless some laxing rules apply to it.” (Free vowels are tense unless laxed by rule)
Practice Decide if the stressed vowels in the following words are in free or covered position. 1. spot 4. radio 7. lion 2. bank 5. cyclist 3. going 6. revise
3. LaxingRules a. Trisyllabic Laxing Rule: if the stressed vowel is in at least the third-last syllable of the word, it must be lax e.g. hesitate b. Laxing by ending e.g. metric solid c. Laxing by free <u>: if it is followed by a free vowel letter <u> in the next syllable e.g. gradual d. CiV laxing: there is a stressed vowel letter <i> or <y> which is followed by a consonant letter + another vowel letter <i> + one more vowel letter e.g. decision
Sources 1.Baloghné Bérces Katalin, Szentgyörgyi Szilárd. Az angol nyelv kiejtése -ThePronunciation of English. http://mek.oszk.hu/04900/04910/04910.pdf 2. Nádasdy, Ádám. PracticeBookin English Phonetics and Phonology. Budapest: Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó, 2003.