PRONUNCIATION ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS GUNADARMA UNIVERSITY
Segmentals and Suprasegmentals • Segmentals: Sound units arranged in a sequential order. Example: Heavens /hɛvənz/ = 6 segmentals features/segments
Suprasegmentals/prosodic features: Features that always accompany the production of segmentals, such as: 1. Stress 2. Pitch 3. Length 4. Intonation
Stress: The degree of force or loudness with which a syllable is pronounced. 1. Strong stress/primary stress (…’…) 2. Medium stress/secondary stress (..,…) 3. Weak stress (…no sign..)
Monosyllabic word: man, glass • Two syllabic word: baby, object, able (stress in first syllable) Ago, desert, object, again (stress in second syllable) • Three syllabic word: ‘Article, ‘family (first) No’vember, to’morrow(second) guaran’tee, after’noon(third)
Pitch • The degree of lowness and higness of tone.
Pitch • Example: • Hello = /2/, /3/ • Good Morning = /2/, /3/, /1/ • I’m going home = /2/, /4/
Intonation • The going up and down of a pitch over different syllables in an utterance. • The melody of speech. Intonation contours: • Falling Intonation • Rising Intonation • Sustained Intonation
Falling Intonation • 1. Orders -Come here. - Be a good boy. 2. Calls - Hey, John - Hello, there 3. Exclamations - How beautiful! - How pretty that girl is!
Falling Intonation 4. Final Statement/decided statement - The sun sets in the west - Seeing is believing 5. Question-word question / WH-question - What’s your name? - Who will come with me?
Rising Intonation Yes-No question - Shall I open the door? - May we come in? - Was it you?
Sustained Intonation • (Non-finality of an utterance) • Yesterday, I bought chocolate, sugar, vegetables, and milk.
1. Diphthong is longer than pure vowel Example: code – cod, late – let 2. Long vowel is longer than short vowel Example: caught – cot, cord – cod 3. Vowel in open syllable is longer than in a closed syllable
Example: he – heal, who – whose 4. Vowel in s stressed syllable is longer than in unstressed syllable. Example: through – throughout 5. Vowel followed by voiced consonant is longer than followed by voiceless consonant. Example: side – site, save - safe
UAS MATERIALS • 1. CONSONANTS • 2. VOWELS • 3. DIPHTHONGS • 4. SYLLABELS • 5. SEGMENTALS AND SUPRASEGMENTALS