PRONUNCIATION ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS GUNADARMA UNIVERSITY
PRONUNCIATION • The act of producing the sounds of speech, including articulation, stress, and intonation, often with reference to some standard of correctness.
PHONETICS • Phonetics deals with the production of speech sounds (bunyi ujaran) by humans using speech organs (organ bicara). • Speech sounds: 1)vowels, 2)consonants. (vowels: diphthongs, triphthongs) • Phonology is about patterns of sounds.
ENGLISH CONSONANTS: p - pip, potb - bat, bugt - tell, tabled - dog, digk - cat, keyg - get, gumf - fish, phonev - van, vatθ - thick, thump, faithð - these, there, smooth
ENGLISH CONSONANTS: s - sat, sitz - zebra, zapʃ - shipʒ - treasure, leisureh - hop, huttʃ - chipdʒ - lodge, judgem - man, mummyn - man, panŋ - sing, wrongl - let, lipsr - rub, ranw - wait, wormj - yet, yacht
ENGLISH VOWELS:(SHORT) ɪ - bit, sillyɛ - bet, headæ - cat, dadɒ - dog, rottenʌ - cut, nutʊ - put, sootə - about, clever
ENGLISH VOWELS:(LONG) i: - cream, seenɜː - burn, firm (also shown as ə: ) a: - hard, farɔː - corn, faunu: - food, glue
DIPHTHONGS: aɪ - spice, pieɛɪ - wait, fateɔɪ - toy, joyəʊ - oats, noteaʊ - clown, vowɔə - bored, pouredɪə - deer, pierɛə - hair, bearʊə - cure, fuel
[-z] or [-s] • [-z] • [-s] • [-z] • [-z] • [-s] • [-s] • [-z] • [-s] • Bananas • Grapes • Lemons • Cookies • Cakes • Tarts • Potatoes • Carrots
[-d], [-t], or [-id] • [-d] • [-t] • [-id] • [-d] • [-t] • [-t] • [-d] • [-id] • Studied • Kicked • Eliminated • Erased • Looked • Typed • Measured • Surrounded
SEGMENTAL AND SUPRASEGMENTAL SOUNDS • Ramelan(2004:22) classifies sounds into segmental and suprasegmentals . He classifies segmental, which refer to sound units arranged in a sequential order, the example above has nine segmental feature, phonetically transcribed in the following way /gud-hεvənz/. • He classifies suprasegmentals, which refer to such features as stress, pitch, length intonation, and other features that always accompany the production of segmental.
(Jones,2002:11) classifies sounds into vowels and consonants. He includes diphthongs in the vowel class. He considers length, rhythm, stress and intonation as suprasegmental sounds.
Vowels According to Jones(2002:12) vowel is when the tongue takes up a vowel position, a resonance chamber is formed which modified the quality of produce by the voice, and give rise to a distinct quality or timber. He defines a vowel (in normal speech) as a voiced sound in forming which the air issues in a continuous stream through the pharynx and mouth, there being a narrowing such as would cause audible friction. According to the position of the highest point of the tongue, vowels can be classified into front vowels, central vowels, and back vowels.
Consonants Consonantmay be classified into voice consonant and voiceless consonant. A voiced consonant is a sound produced when the vocal cords are vibrating. While, voiceless consonants is a sound made with no vibration of the vocal cord (Dale and Poem, 2005:116).
CONSONANTS • According to Baker (2005:24) consonant is a sound, voiced and voiceless, in which the air stream is obstructed through a narrowing or complete closure of the mouth passage in the other words. • The sound of a consonant depends on whether or not the vocal cords vibrate, where and how it is formed.
Diphthongs Jones (2002: 22) says diphthong is when the sound is made by gliding from one vowel position to another. Diphthongs are represented phonetically by sequences of two letters, the first showing the starting point and the second indicating the direction of movement. He defines a diphthong as an independent vowel-glide not containing within itself either a ‘peak’ or ‘trough’ of prominence. What is meant by vowel glide is that speech-organs start in the position of one vowel and move in the direction of another vowel. What is mean by ‘independent’ is that the glide is expressly made, and is not merely unavoidable concomitant of sounds preceding and following. Diphthongs are classified into three, namely raising/ closing diphthong, falling students and centring diphthongs.
Suprasegmental Sounds 1) Length RhythmThe length or quality of a sound is the length of time during which it is held on continuously in a given word or phrase (Jones,2002 : 232). Rhythm is represented by means of musical notation. The term ‘lenght’ refers to the period of time during which a sound is produced in a given utterance (Ramelan,2004:29)
2) StressStress is the degree of force with which a sound or syllable is uttered (Jones,1987:245). Stress [ ‘ ], moderate stress (no symbol ),and weak stress [ , ], for example in the word ‘unimportant’ [ Λn,Im’pכ:tn ].
Ramelan(2004:25) states that ‘stress’ meant the degree of force or loudness with which a syllable is pronounced so as to give it prominence. He said there three degrees of stress can be observed in English: • 1) Strong or primary stress 2) Medium or secondary stress 3) Weak stress
3) IntonationAccording to Ramelan(2004:32)intonation may also be called the melody of speech. The proper use of intonation is very important since it makes speech more lively and interesting to the hearer.Intonation is divided into at least two kinds namely : rising intonation and falling intonation.
English Diphthongs [ei] make, day[ou] – [əu] low, so[ai] like, height[ɔi] enjoy, boy[au] house, cow[iə] fear, cheer[uə] cure, tour[ɛə] – [eə] share, hair[ɔə] – [ɔ:] more, shore
English Triphthongs 1. [aiə] liar, fire2. [əuə] mower, lower3. [eiə] player, layer4. [auə] power, hour5. [ɔiə ] loyal, royal
Write the Phonetic Symbols of the Following Words • Utterance 8. Thorough • Method 9. Severe • Examine 10. Say - Said • Determine 11. Bush • Literature 12. Plumber • Clause 13. Debt • Because 14. Doubtful
15. Climbing 24. Honourable 16. Serious 25. Honest 17. Series 26. Tongue 18. Theme 27. Phonology 19. Height 28. Stomach 20. Convey 29. Charles 21. Law - Low 30. Symbol 22. Procedure 31. Saw 23. Present (v) 32. Awful
33. Poem 42. Colleague 34. Written 43. Thought 35. Author 44. Taught 36. Novel 45. Analysis 37. Tone 46. Bathe 38. Phase – Face 47. Raise - Rise 39. Service 48. Perfect (adj) 40. Massage 49. Morpheme Message 41. Naughty 50. Focus
51. Signature 59. dessert 52. Failure 60. unity 53. Rouge 61. diversity 54. Separate 62. technology 55. Value 63. culture 56. Cuisine 64. course 57. Suicide 65. source 58. Legal 66. atmosphere
68. Occur 75. unity 69. Written 76. opposite 70. Audience 77. hyponym 71. Semantics 78. cause 72. Oxford 79. change 73. Acquire 80. choir 74. period
81. ask – act • 82. suitable • 83. ninth • 84. develop - development • 85. Ralph • 86. receipt • 87. recipe • 88. Psychology
89. linked 97. washes 105. sliced 90. opted 98. boxes 106. fined 91. fixed 99. eyes 107. faced 92. rained 100. shapes 108. baked 93. segmented 101. suffixes 109. clauses 94. ended 102. branches 110. prefixes 95. dialed 103. bridges 111. saves 96. watched 104. ages 112. cooked