CV Review Test #1 A &P Heart, Circulation, Blood Vessels Cardiovascular Nsg. Assessment Diagnostic Tests Risk Factors Dysrhythmias Coronary Artery Disease Open Heart Surgery
T/F • Circulation is a one-way circuit of the blood vessels propelled by the heart
Other • List the 5 features of the heart’s location. • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • 5.
Complete • Define the “pericardium” and state it’s purpose
MC • The 2 layers of the pericardium are serous membranes. The layers are called: • A. epicardium and visceral membranes • B. Myocardium and epicardium • C. visceral (epicardium) and parietal layers • D. none of the above
MC • Between the 2 layers a substance allows friction-free movement of the heart as it contracts and relaxes. This substance is called: • A. blood • B. lymph fluid • C. Serous fluid • D. cerebrospinal fluid
MR • Identify the three layers of the heart wall below: • A. Parietal layer • B. myocardium • C. epicardium • D. Endocardium
Other • The heart muscle has special features that suit it well for the pumping job that it does. List the 5 features that are unique to this organ: • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • 5.
Fill - in • The heart acts as a “double pump”: The right side pumps ________ blood and sends it to ____________. The left side pumps ___________blood and sends it to ______________.
Complete • List the 4 chambers of the heart and the blood quality that each receives or pumps: • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4.
Complete • List the 4 valves involved in the heart’s action and all names related to each valve:
Other • Step by step, identify the pathway of blood through the heart to the body.
MC • When the left and right sides of the heart work together for a complete heartbeat, it is called a: • A. half-cycle • B. cardiac cycle • C. life cycle • D. work-cycle
Complete • The heart works in 2 phases. Each phase is has a special action associated with it: List the 2 phases by name and the action associated with it:
MC • There are 2 distinct heart sounds in every cardiac cycle. One sound is caused by the closure of the semilunar valves during relaxation of the ventricles. It is called: • A. lubb • B. dubb • C. Whoosh • D. Back swish
MC • With each ventricular contraction, the volume of blood ejected is called: • A. cardiac output • B. heart rate • C. stroke volume • D. A and B
MC • The volume of blood that one ventricle can pump each minute is called the: • A. stroke volume • B. heart rate • C. cardiac output • D. a and b
MC • To understand the electrical conduction of the heart it is important to understand 2 characteristics. One of these characteristics is an inherent ability to contract in a rhythmic pattern. This is called: • A. bradycardia • B. automaticity • C. tachycardia • D. irritability
MC • If heart muscle cells are removed and placed under a microscope, they continue to beat. This is called: • A. automaticity • B. conductivity • C. cardiac output • D. Irritability
MC • Electrical energy stimulates the heart muscle and originates in nodes. One of these nodes is called the “pacemaker” – it is: • A. the atrioventricular (AV) node • B. the AV bundle (Bundle of His) • C. the sinoatrial (SA) node • D. the Purkinje fibers
Complete • The conduction pathway of the heart follows the electrical ‘conduit’ in atria and ventricles and septum of the ventricles of the heart. List the 7 parts of this pathway in the order that the electricity travels: • 1. 5. • 2. 6. • 3. 7. • 4.
MR • Which of the following influences allow the heart to meet the changing needs of the body rapidly? • A. Cranial Nerve X • B. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous systems • C. Hormones • D. Autonomic Nervous System
T/F • Bradycardia is a pulse rate < 60 bpm • Tachycardia is pulse rate 100 – 150 bpm
Complete • As the heart ages it starts to change. List 5 features of an aging heart:
MR • The blood vessels form a closed tube that carries blood away from the heart, to the cells, and back again. Which of the following are blood vessels that form this circuit? • A. atria • B. arteries • C. veins • D. capillaries
Fill in • Blood is pumped out of the ventricles into the _________. These carry blood away from the heart toward the ________ in the tissues. • The smallest arteries are called __________.
Fill in • ______ drain capillaries in the tissues and _______ blood to the ________. • The smallest veins are called ___________.
Fill in • _______ connect the arterioles and venules. • _______ allow for exchanges between the blood and _____ _____ or between the blood and ________ in the lungs.
Complete • The pulmonary circuit carries blood from the ___ ________ to the pulmonary ___________ and then to the ______, alveolar capillaries, and ___________ ________ leading from the lungs to the ____ __________.
Complete • The systemic circuit includes the _________ and its branches leading to _____________ as well as to the system of veins ___________ blood to the ____ ________.
MC • Vessels that are strong and elastic and adapted for carrying high-pressure blood are called: • A. Veins • B. arteries • C. Pulmonary circuit • D. Systemic circuit
MR • With stimuli from the nervous system, arteries are capable of ____________ and ___________. • A. vasoconstriction • B. vasodilation • C. vasocirculation • D. myovaso inhibition
T/F • Capillaries join arteries and veins.
Fill in • Blood entering the capillaries contains high concentrations of ________ and _______ that ____________ ________ of the capillary wall and into the tissues.
MR • Branches of the aortic arch include which of the following: • A. R and L coronary arteries • B. the brachiocephalic artery • C. left common carotid artery • D. left subclavian artery
MR • Blood flow through the venous system is only partially the result of heart action. What other actions does it depend on? • A. skeletal muscle contraction • B. breathing movements • C. vasoconstriction of veins • D. vasoconstriction of arteries
MC • The veins of the head, neck, upper extremities and chest all drain into the ___________ _____ _______ which goes to the heart. • A. aorta • B. subclavian vena cava • C. inferior vena cava • D. superior vena cava
MC • A special system known as the _________ is a kind of detour that transports blood from the digestive organs and spleen to the liver where nutrients are processed, stored, and released as needed by the body. • A. portal divide • B. portal sinusoid • C. hepatic portal system • D. closed portal circuit
MR • The flow of blood is carefully regulated to supply the needs of the tissues without unnecessary burden on the heart. Vasomotor activities affect the diameter of the blood vessels and consist of which of the following: • A. Vasoconstriction • B. Vasovalvular action • C. Vasodilation • D. Vasodynamics
MC • The force of ventricular contraction starts a wave of increased pressure that begins at the heart and travels along the arteries. This wave is called the: • A. PQT wave • B. Pulse • C. diastole • D. Cardiac swish
MC • Blood pressure is the force of blood against the inner walls of blood vessels – usually arteries. Arterial blood pressure rises and falls following a pattern established by the cardiac cycle. When arterial pressure is at it’s highest it is called: • A. diastolic pressure • B. stroke volume pressure • C. systolic pressure • D. cardiac output phase 1
MC • When ventricles are relaxing and arterial pressure is at it’s lowest, it is called: • A. systole • B. diastolic pressure • C. stroke volume pressure • D. cardiac output phase 2
T/F • Peripheral resistance and blood viscosity are two factors that influence arterial BP.
Other • List 3 other factors that influence blood pressure: • 1. • 2. • 3.
MR • A cardiac nursing assessment should include a patient health history and full head to toe assessment. Which of the following are included in taking a health history? • A. Blood Pressure history • B. Previous heart disease/diagnosed • C. Current symptoms • D. family history
A health history is significant to the nurse in identifying risk factors for heart disease. Below, LIST 3 “non-modifiable” risk factors and LIST 3 “modifiable” risk factors for heart disease: Non-modifiable Modifiable
MR • To reduce risk factors for cardiac disease, the primary provider may utilize pharmacological resources. Therapeutic medications (hyperlipidemics) fall into which categories below: • A. Fibric Acid Derivatives • B. Bile Acid Sequestrants • C. HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors • D. none of the above
T/F • A major part of cardiovascular nursing is changing behavior.
MC • Subjective data refers to: • A. observable and measurable data • B. Medical provider’s assessment • C. Angiography results • D. verbal statements provided by the patient
Other • List 4 symptoms of cardiovascular deficits. • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4.